SOCAR Proceedings

SOCAR Proceedings

The Journal’s official publisher is "OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute of State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR).

SOCAR Proceedings is published from 1930 and is intended for oil and gas industry specialists, post-graduate (students) and scientific workers. 

Journal is indexed in SCOPUS, Russian Scientific Citation Index and abstracted in EI’s Compendex, Petroleum Abstracts (Tulsa), Inspec, Chemical Abstracts database.

Beginning with 2017 journal is indexed and abstracted in Emerging Sources Citation Index. 

Ad.A.Aliyev, O.R.Abbasov, A.J.Ibadzade, A.N.Mammadova

Institute of Geology and Geophysics, ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan

Genesis and organic geochemical characteristics of oil shale in eastern Azerbaijan

The paper presents a study on genesis and organic geochemical characteristics of oil shales, occurred in different tectonic zones of Eastern Azerbaijan. Lithostratigraphic properties of oil shale containing sediments, evolutionary dynamics and structural types of organic matter were studied. In terms of paleogeography, it was defined that the formation of oil shales in examined regions, are associated with an almost identical sedimentation conditions (in shallow freshwater and silty pools - lagoons). The organic matter of the oil shales is mainly consist of phytoplankton (algae) and zooplanktons (fish larvae etc.). Connected with orogenic phases, the formation of oil shale, coal and oil in southeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus links their similar genetic properties. Thermal analysis of oil shale revealed that when organic matter loses the most part of its weight at a higher temperature (≥400 °C) corresponds to aliphatic, but at lower temperatures (≥200 °C) aromatic structures. Pyrolysis of oil shale samples showed that in the initial stage (500-550 °C), excluding the amount of gas, bitumen and pyrolytic water were increased. Increasing the temperature up to 800-850 °C leads to the conversion of higher molecular hydrocarbons into lower, and formation of gases and coke residues. The gradual increase in temperature ends with carbonization of kerogen. An abrupt change in the yielding of bitumen is mainly observed at a temperature of 400 °C. Thermal analysis and pyrolysis of oi shale samples, taken from different studied regions allow making conclusion that some of their kerogens is fully matured.

Keywords: Oil shale; Genesis; Organic matter; Kerogen; Tthermal analysis; Pyrolysis.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300356


О.А.Melkishev1, V.I.Galkin1, S.V.Galkin1, V.Sh.Gurbanov2, К.А. Koshkin3

1Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russia; 2Institute of Oil and Gas of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan; 
3JSC «UralOil», Yekaterinburg, Russia

Application of cluster analysis in assessing the initial total in place oil resources’ density for highly explored areas

The complex use of the results of cluster analysis for oil and gas geological zoning of the territory of the Perm region is considered based on the probabilistic and statistical criteria of the generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons for the Visei terrigenous oil and gas bearing complex. The evaluation of localized oil resources in the oil and gas bearing complex was carried out. The scheme for estimating the density of initial total oil resources (ITOR) was constructed for the southern part of Perm region. The highest density of ITOR according to the scheme is characterized by the territory of the onboard zones of the Bashkir arch and the central part of the Bymsko-Kungur monocline, the Nozhov group of deposits, the southern end of the Permian arch. Quantitative estimation of the density of total oil resources allows to estimate the values of perspective oil resources (category D1) when planning seismic surveys. The calculated value of the density of the ITOR can be considered in the economic planning of detailed seismic works (2D and 3D) as the most probable value of the density of prepared resources of category D0 within the contours of the traps. The results can be used to plan deep drilling on the most promising areas in terms of oil and gas potential.

Keywords: initial oil resources; oil and gas geological zoning; probabilistic and statistical criteria of oil and gas content; cluster analysis; non-localized oil resources; visei clastic oil and gas bearing complex.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300357


T.Sh.Salavatov1, I.R.Hasanov2

1Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan

Forecasting the phase state of hydrocarbons in a porous medium

Modeling the phase state of natural hydrocarbon systems during the development and operation of deposits is of great importance. Their theoretical basis is the famous Van der Waals equation of state. The equations of state of the van der Waals type favorably differ from the various modifications of the multi-coefficient equations by their simplicity and the possibility of an analytic determination of the roots. This direction in the development and application of the equations of state for modeling the phase equilibrium of oil and gas condensate mixtures has become dominant in recent years [1-8]. In the paper, an analytical form of the curves that bound the region of the two-phase state (binodal and spinodal) is established. This allows us to establish the state of phase equilibrium of the hydrocarbon system. The values of the analytical form of the equation of curves characterizing a two-phase state allow one to solve many development problems mathematically, together with the use of other important equations in one system. And this, in turn, improves the quality of design and operation of oil and gas condensate fields.

Keywords: phase equilibrium; prediction; inequality; volume; pressure; temperature; binodal; spinodal.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300358


K.I.Matiyev*1, A.D.Agazade1, M.E.Alsafarova1, F.M.Akhmedov2.

1«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2SOCAR Midstream Operations Ltd, Baku, Azerbaijan

Pour-point depressant for pigh our-point paraffinic oils

A depressant has been developed to reduce the pour point of highly paraffinic oils. The pour-point depressant contains a non-ionic surfactant, a pour-point reducer and a solvent. The prepared depressants reduce the pour point and the viscosity of oils. The depressor properties of the prepared additives have been investiga edfor oils of production wells No. 20, 53, 266 and 444 of the OGPD named after N.Narimanov, «Azneft» PU. The paraffin content in these oils is 6.0-20.1%. The highest depressor effect value, as well as the viscosity effect, is noted for oil in well No. 266. A depressant in an amount of 0.02% and 0.04% of oil contributes to the depressant effect, 27-28 оС and 30-31 оС respectively. Viscosity effect for this oil with addition of certain additives at an amount of 0.04% of oil at 35 оС and 40 оС, makes 48.29-51.80% and 51.40-55.71% respectively. It was noted that the amount of paraffin, contained in oil, is of great significance in achieving high values both for depressor effect, and for the viscosity effect.

Keywords: pour-point depressant; oil; high pour; paraffins; depressor effect; dynamic viscosity; viscosity effect.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300359


Y.T.Baspayev1, Y.O.Ayapbergenov1, S.D.Rzayeva2

1«KazNIPIMunayGas» JSC, Aktau, Kazaxstan; 2«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan

Analysis of the well killing fluids effect on the filtration properties of the rocks of the «Uzen» field

Based on careful compositional analysis the killing fluids should possess certain physico-chemical and technological properties for particular geological conditions. To advance the well kill operation technology used in the wells of the Uzen field, chemical reagents were studied with account of the reservoir property. Investigations were carried out to determine the consumption rate of the mineral salts under study, their density, compatibility with hydrochloric acid and the reservoir water, the sediment mass, the mass fraction of alkaline earth metal ions, and their influence on reservoir properties. On the ground of complex laboratory research, optimum mixture killing fluids based on mineral salts have been selected. 

Keywords: well killing fluid; mineral salts; consumption rate; corrosion rate; permeability; reservoir properties.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300360


B.M.Mukhtanov, A.A.Bektasov, V.Z.Khazhitov

Branch of the LLP SRI PDT «KazMunaiGaz» «Caspimunaigas», Atyrau, Kazakhstan

Overview of the operating technology for continuous steam injection in Kazakhstan

This article presents the results of assessment and prospectivity of high-viscosity oil reserves difficult to recover development technology application by means of thermal formation treatment based on analysis of Kenkiyak field development. The performance analysis of nearby observation wells, temperature and oil saturation cube has been carried out to determine the efficiency of constant steam injection in steam wells. Continuous steam injection results show the efficiency of constant steam injection technology: the zone of the thermal front increases and the oil saturation decreases to the residual level. However, constant steam injection in high viscosity oil areas should be used for a limited time, changing the injection elements for a certain period of time based on the results of reservoir modeling and research.

Keywords: improved recovery; thermal technology; steam; steam wells; temperature cube; oil saturation; steam oil ratio.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300361



Branch of the LLP SRI PDT «KazMunaiGaz» «Caspimunaigas», Atyrau, Kazakhstan

Case history of dual injection technology applied in multi-layer deposits on the example of the Kazakhstan deposit

Conventional conjoint water injection into several layers with various permeability, does not allow us water flow control for each of the layers, which leads to uneven encroachment. It results in an advanced watering of highly permeable oil reservoirs, the degree of noncoverage, uneven impact and output of each of the layers with different permeability increases. Dual Injection Technology is a process fluid injection by one well separately into different layers in accordance with each reservoir properties aimed at a more even production of seams. Dual Injection Technology mainly allows: reducing the drilling volume due to the use of one well and, therefore, reducing drilling Capex; simultaneous operation of several objects with various reservoir properties; enhanced crude production by 10-20% due to differentiated and controlled impacts on each reservoir; increasing the profitability of individual wells by involving other development targets or various property reservoirs of a single exploitation target; recording the amount of the agent injected into each reservoir. The article considers methods and approaches to the evaluation of the Dual Injection Technology efficiency on the example of the Kazakhstan deposit.

Keywords: deposit; reservoir; dual injection technology; porosity; permeability.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300362


N.D.Sarsenbekov1, E.N.Yakupova2, S.B.Kairbekov1, Ye.Sh.Seyithaziyev1

1Branch of the LLP SRI PDT «KazMunaiGaz» «Caspimunaigas», Atyrau, Kazakhstan; 2SRI PDT «KazMunayGas» LLP, Astana, Kazakhstan

The role of petroleum geochemistry in enhancing multizone oil and gas reservoirs development

Geochemical laboratory test on crude for Kazakhstan is an innovative technology for use in geological simulation of deposits and Field Development Analysis. The main type of geochemical research is oil fingerprinting, which is, in fact, a method that studies «fingerprints», i.e. unique for each oil sample of productive layers, blocks in the deposit. Findings of investigation are widely used in oil companies and research organizations of developed Western countries involved in the oil business. The article reviews the results of laboratory geochemical survey of oil from different pays by fingerprinting, gives examples of their effective use in geological simulation, development analysis for project decisions, and provides perspectives for further application of the fingerprinting method in solving geological and hydrodynamic problems by research organizations in the Republic Kazakhstan.

Keywords: geochemistry; fingerprinting; method; fingerprints; oil; well; sample; horizons; beds; dendrogram.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300363


G.S.Martynova*1, F.R.Babayev2, P.Z.Muradov3, O.P.Maksakova1, R.G.Nanajanova1

1 The Institute of Oil and Gas of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2 Azerbaijan Technical University, Baku, Azerbaijan;
3 The Institute of Microbiology of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan

Dominant Bacteria of Naftalan Oil

A study was made of the microbiological and hydrocarbon composition, as well as biomarkers of medical and fuel oil, using the GC/MS method. It has been shown that normal and branched alkanes (isoprenoids) are almost completely destroyed by bacteria after 20 days, the "naphthene hump" decreases significantly and the share of aromatic hydrocarbons increases. The pattern of distribution of biomarkers is changing, their configuration becomes unrecognizable. In the samples of Naftalan oil, 15 genera of bacteria have been identified: Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Clostridium, Desulfobacter, Enterobacter, Klebciella, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Micrococcus, Methanothermobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Thermococcus. Of the registered genera - Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermococcus belong to the archaea, which plays the main role in the formation of the microbiota of therapeutic Naftalan oil. In the case of biodegradation of oil, when microorganisms intervene, the level of biodegradation can be estimated from the analysis of biomarkers.

Keywords: Therapeutic Naftalan oil; Microbiological analysis; Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC/MS); Biomarkers.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180300364