SOCAR Proceedings

SOCAR Proceedings

Published by "OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute of State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR).

SOCAR Proceedings is published from 1930 and is intended for oil and gas industry specialists, post-graduate (students) and scientific workers.

Journal is indexed in Web of Science (Emerging Sources Citation Index), SCOPUS and Russian Scientific Citation Index, and abstracted in EI’s Compendex, Petroleum Abstracts (Tulsa), Inspec, Chemical Abstracts database.


The Institute of Geophysics (IGP) of the NAS of Ukraine,Karpat branch

Forecasting physical and reservoir characteristics of reservoir formations for exploration of unconventional gas

The fundamentals of the methodology and the results of experimental research (well 1-Lishchyns’ka, Western Ukraine) to identify possible areas of gas accumulation in unconventional reservoirs by numerical modelling of the processes of passage of seismic waves are presented. The structural features and scattering in rocks (layering, microporosity) are taken into account.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100182


E.H.Aliyeva, A.J.Imanov, K.H.Safarli, S.M.Ismaylova, A.T.Khakimova, A.N.Nasirov

“OilGasScientficResearchProject” Institute, SOCAR

Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous basins within Azerbaijan territory by petrographic indices

A detailed lithology-petrographic analysis of a number of sections from oil-gas regions such as Precaspian-Guba, Shamakha-Gobustan, Gandja, Evlakh-Agjabedi, Kura-Gabirri interfluve has been performed. A similarity between provenance areas of Cretaceous sediments in the Precaspian-Guba, and Shamakha-Gobustan regions has been demonstrated based on the mineralogical composition data. The results obtained testify to difference of the geodynamic and paleogeographic settings within eastern and western Azerbaijan. It is assumed that within western Azerbaijan the back arc basins existed. These basins are characterized by an accumulation of a thick volcanogenic-sedimentary series. In eastern Azerbaijan the accumulation of terrigenous and carbonate sediments took place under conditions of a normal marine basin.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100183


Y.Rugang1, J.Guancheng1, Y.Longyun1, L.Wei1, D.Tianqing2

1China University of Petroleum
2China Oilfield Services Ltd.

The effect of inorganic salt on the structure of filter cake of water based drilling fluid

Filter cake formed by large particles has an increased porosity, and also, a greater permeability. The objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive review of the microscopic structure and elementary composition, particle size distribution, and polymer concentration in different layers of the filter cake to reveal the mechanism which led to the changes of structure of filter cake. The effect of inorganic salt on the structure of filter cake has been conducted. The results obtained show that a high level of electrolyte contamination has facilitated the flocculation of drilling fluid. The gel strength becomes too weak to suspend larger particles, and they are easier to deposit in fluid with electrolyte contamination. As a result, the particle size of the bottom layer of the filter cake is larger than that of middle layer and top layer. It is possible to improve the salt tolerance of brine based drilling fluid, in other words, provide a plentiful supply and homogeneous distribution of deformable colloidal particles which are formed by bentonite and polymers in the filter cake. The deformable colloidal particles plug pores of various sizes, increasing the percolating resistance of the filter cake and reducing the velocity of filtration.

Keywords: filter cake structure, drilling fluid, scanning electron microscopy, particle size distribution, inorganic salt

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100185


S.Zhang1, G.Jiang1, W.Qing1, L.Wang1, H.Guo2, X.Tang2, D.Bai2

1China University of Petroleum
2China National Petroleum Corporation

Low-damaging drilling-in fluid technology used for reservoir protection

To protect reservoir during drilling, the drilling-in fluid is generally converted into reservoir protection fluid by adding proper graded temporary plugging materials based on the average radius of pore throat in the reservoir. The main materials include the bridging particles and film-forming agent. In order to achieve the purpose of low damage during drilling, the bridging particles are optimized by the ideal filling theory (IPT) and the film-forming agent is adopted. Based on these results, the synergistic reservoir protect technology is developed and the temporary plugging mechanism is analyzed. Laboratory evaluation and field tests showed that the plugging rate and recovery rate of cores treated by the developed drilling-in fluid are both over 90%, thus, the developed drilling fluid systems have a better reservoir protection effect than conventional systems and can help to increase daily oil production.

Keywords: ideal filling theory, film-forming agent, reservoir protection, permeability recovery rate, field tests

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20150100184


Z.Wu, X.Yue, H.Yang, L.Zhang

China University of Petroleum

Evaluation of the dynamic sealing characteristics of gel in henan oilfield

One of the most important techniques for injection wells is water shutoff in severely heterogeneous reservoirs. It has been widely reported that the effectiveness of water shutoff using gel is mostly dependent on the gel dynamic sealing properties. In this study, the gelation strength of polymer gel was evaluated. During the core flowing experiments, the pressure gradient along the sand pack model was recorded and the sand gelation conditions of different locations along the sand pack were  obtained to confirm the effective migration distance of gel particles, which was again checked by the particle-size distribution of gel particles in the effluent. A water flooding core experiment was carried out in core of 80 cm in length before and after injecting gel system. The experimental results showed that moderate-strength gel could be formed at 65°C. According to the integrated evaluation of the plugging factor, plugging strength and water breakthrough time, the gel particles were capable of migrating to outlet in 2 m long sand pack during the water injection process after gelation. Based on gelation sands states and analyses of effluent, the effective migration distance of the gel particles was 50%. Through the core flooding experiments using the 80 cm long heterogeneous core, it was proved that the gel could be formed relatively far from the injectors (60% of total length between injector and producer) with the plugging factor as high as 75.33, which led to extra oil recovery of 12.28% of original oil in place (OOIP) by water flooding after water shutoff treatment.

Keywords: gel, sealing characteristic, breakthrough time, oil recovery.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100188


M.I.Kurbanbayev1, S.S.Keldibayeva2

1JSC "Kazakh Institute of Oil and Gas"
2JSC "KazNIPIMunayGas"

The analysis of well selection criteria for hydraulic fracturing on late field development stages

The article considers hydraulic fracturing as one of the most effective methods of for the liquid selection and one which offers additional selection criteria for fracturing of wells. On the basis of this criterion the dependence of the percentage of oil extraction and the decision to carry out hydraulic fracturing is determined.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100189

E-mail: Кeldibaeva


"KazNIPIMunayGas" JSC

Influencing of corrosion inhibitors on rheological properties of oil, «Jetibay» field

Experimental studies for defining the dependence of oil effective viscosity on shear rate at constant temperature with the addition of various reactants having bactericidal properties are presented in this article. On the basis of non-equilibrium reaction coefficients the agents most promoting viscosity decrease have been used. Herein it is shown that at small shear rates (1.11 ÷ 60.6 с-1) Neftegas-K has exhibited the best properties, and at major shear rates (100 ÷ 800 с-1) - "Kompozit-1" was the best.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100190


M.A.Mursalova1, E.K.Shahbazov2

1"OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute, SOCAR

Study of nano-surfactant composition for inhibition of scaling process during oil and gas production

A comparative study of salt formation history in saturated solutions of calcium carbonate has been performed using optical and trilonometric analysis which established the differences in the laws for the solid phase precipitation in the presence of surfactants and nano-surfactants. It is demonstrated that the addition of metal nano-particles to a surfactant improves the protective effect of complex scale inhibitor in highly mineralized formation waters.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20150100186


Q.Li, Y.Çenq, X.Vanq, Ş.Tian, Y.Janq

China University of Petroleum

Feasibility analysis on coiled tubing jet fracturing with supercritical co2

Hydraulic fracturing plays an important role in the development of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs but it also faces many challenges from the aspects of formation damage control and environment protection. Coiled tubing jet fracturing with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) will hopefully resolve challenges that such hydraulic fracturing is facing. In order to analyze the feasibility of coiled tubing jet fracturing with SC-CO2, the physical properties of SC-CO2 fluid were used, the rock fracturing capability and pressure boosting effect of SC-CO2 jets were analyzed and the reservoir stimulation effects of SC-CO2 fluid were explained. The results demonstrated that SC-CO2 jet fracturing operations can be carried out with lower pressure than water jet fracturing; the infiltration capability of SC-CO2 is so strong that it can easily infiltrate into the micro-pores and micro-fractures in formation rocks and generate networks of interconnecting fractures; when SC-CO2 is utilized as the fracturing fluid, formation damage, such as clay swelling and pore blocking, can be avoided and the reservoir stimulation effect can also be improved with its unique properties. Based on these results, the procedures and advantages of coiled tubing jet fracturing with SC-CO2 were put forward in this paper. In conclusion, coiled tubing jet fracturing with SC-CO2 combines the advantage of SC-CO2 jet and coiled tubing fracturing, and is expected to become an efficient, safe and environmentally friendly stimulation method of developing unconventional oil and gas resources.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, jet, fracturing, coiled tubing, unconventional oil and gas, feasibility analysis.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20150100187


A.Sh.Garalov, I.Y. Silvestrova

"OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute, SOCAR

Technical approach to advanced oil production planning

We have analyzed technical options for advanced oil production planning as well as evaluating their advantages and disadvantages. Oil production well stock is primarily estimated with regard to utilization of all available stock, followed by potential return of wells to production from drilling or non-operational status. Operating well stock is ranked on: old wells (proceeding and restoring) and wells drilled & completed. The oil production profile is separately estimated in accordance with each well rank. An example of oil production planning estimated for a year is shown. The presented estimation enables long-term crude oil production planning; herewith one may estimate base-case scenario, as well as options with regard to percentage risk.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20150100191


E.M.Abbasov, N.A.Agaeva

"OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute, SOCAR

Propagation of the constructed of pressure waves in fluid with the account dynamic connection of system the well-formation

On the basis of theoretical researches influencing of the pressure waves constructed on well-head, on nature of variation of bottom hole pressure is learnt. Analytical expression of bottom hole pressure taking into account dynamic connection of system a well - formation is received.

DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140100192