SOCAR Proceedings

SOCAR Proceedings

Published by "OilGasScientificResearchProject" Institute of State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR).

SOCAR Proceedings is published from 1930 and is intended for oil and gas industry specialists, post-graduate (students) and scientific workers.

Journal is indexed in Web of Science (Emerging Sources Citation Index), SCOPUS and Russian Scientific Citation Index, and abstracted in EI’s Compendex, Petroleum Abstracts (Tulsa), Inspec, Chemical Abstracts database.

B. G. Ahadov1,2, F. A. Kadirov*1,2

1Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Ministry of Science and Education Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2Institute of Oil and Gas, Ministry of Science and Education Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

Insar analysis of the ayazakhtarma mud volcano and its response to the 2021 shamakhi earthquake: understanding seismo-volcanic interactions


In this study, the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) method was employed for the first time to examine the correlation between moderate earthquakes and the dynamics of volcanoes in Azerbaijan. InSAR is a powerful technique for explaining the complexities of earthquakes in spatial times, providing more detailed insights into earthquake impacts than traditional methodologies. We analyzed pre-seismic, co-seismic, and post-seismic scenarios to determine potential possible relations between the 2021 Shamakhi earthquake (Mw5) and the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano. This research presents a comprehensive deformation time series data for the volcano derived from Sentinel 1A/B observations spanning 2017 to 2023. Concurrently, radar line-of-sight (LOS) displacement maps are prepared to represent the deformation associated with the earthquake in the pre-, co-, and post-seismic phases. Specifically, our analysis of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano revealed significant LOS alterations in the pre-, co-, and post-seismic phases of ascending and descending orbits. Also, during a seven-year time series observation of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano, two seismic events of magnitude Mw5 were recorded. These events demonstrated no significant influence on the mud volcano's activity, indicating that earthquakes of up to Mw ≤ 5 may not prompt significant eruptions in the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano. The study of the interferometric data has revealed fresh insights into the deformation behaviours of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano and its interplay with seismic events.

Keywords: InSAR; deformation; earthquake; volcano; Ayazakhtarma; Azerbaijan.

In this study, the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) method was employed for the first time to examine the correlation between moderate earthquakes and the dynamics of volcanoes in Azerbaijan. InSAR is a powerful technique for explaining the complexities of earthquakes in spatial times, providing more detailed insights into earthquake impacts than traditional methodologies. We analyzed pre-seismic, co-seismic, and post-seismic scenarios to determine potential possible relations between the 2021 Shamakhi earthquake (Mw5) and the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano. This research presents a comprehensive deformation time series data for the volcano derived from Sentinel 1A/B observations spanning 2017 to 2023. Concurrently, radar line-of-sight (LOS) displacement maps are prepared to represent the deformation associated with the earthquake in the pre-, co-, and post-seismic phases. Specifically, our analysis of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano revealed significant LOS alterations in the pre-, co-, and post-seismic phases of ascending and descending orbits. Also, during a seven-year time series observation of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano, two seismic events of magnitude Mw5 were recorded. These events demonstrated no significant influence on the mud volcano's activity, indicating that earthquakes of up to Mw ≤ 5 may not prompt significant eruptions in the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano. The study of the interferometric data has revealed fresh insights into the deformation behaviours of the Ayazakhtarma mud volcano and its interplay with seismic events.

Keywords: InSAR; deformation; earthquake; volcano; Ayazakhtarma; Azerbaijan.

References

  1. Reilinger, R., McClusky, S., Vernant, P., et al. (2006). GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 111(B5), B05411.
  2. Kadirov, F., Floyd, M., Alizadeh, A., et al. (2012). Kinematics of the eastern Caucasus near Baku, Azerbaijan. Natural Hazards, 63, 997-1006.
  3. Kadirov, F. A., Floyd, M., Reilinger, R., et al. (2015). Active geodynamics of the Caucasus region: implications for earthquake hazards in Azerbaijan. ANAS Transactions, 3, 3-17.
  4. Ahadov, B., Jin, S. (2017). Present-day kinematics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus from dense GPS observations. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 268, 54-64.
  5. Ahadov, B., Jin, S. (2021). Slip rates and seismic potential along main faults in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus from dense GPS observations and seismic data. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 178, 39-54.
  6. Ahadov, B., Ozturk, S. (2022). Spatial variations of fundamental seismotectonic parameters for the earthquake occurrences in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. Natural Hazards, 111(3), 2177-2192.
  7. Telesca, L., Kadirov, F., Yetirmishli, G., et al. (2017). Statistical analysis of the 2003–2016 seismicity of Azerbaijan and surrounding areas. Journal of Seismology, 21, 1467-1485.
  8. Kondorskaya, N. V., Shebalin, N. V. (eds.) (1982). New catalog of strong earthquakes in the USSR from ancient times through 1977. World Data Center a for Solid Earth Geophysics, Report SE-31, NOAA. Boulder, Colorado, USA.
  9. Yakubov, A. A., Alizade, A. A., Zeinalov, M. M. (1971). Mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan SSR: Atlas. Baku: Elm.
  10. Aliyev, A. A., Guliyev, I. S., Rakhmanov, R. R. (2009). Catalogue of mud volcanoes eruptions of Azerbaijan: 1810-2007. Baku: Nafta-Press.
  11. Aliyev, A. A., Guliyev, I. S., Dadashov, F. H., Rakhmanov, R. R. (2015). Atlas of the world mud volcanoes. Baku: Nafta-Press.
  12. Alizadeh, A. A., Guliyev, I. S., Kadirov, F. A., Eppelbaum, L. V. (2016). Geosciences of Azerbaijan. Vol. 1. Heidelberg: Springer.
  13. Alizadeh, A. A., Guliyev, I. S., Kadirov, F. A., Eppelbaum, L. V. (2017). Economic minerals of Azerbaijan /in «Geosciences of Azerbaijan». Vol. II: Economic geology and applied geophysics. Springer Cham.
  14. Manga, M., Brumm, M., Rudolph, M. L. (2009). Earthquake triggering of mud volcanoes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26(9), 1785-1798.
  15. Mellors, R., Kilb, D., Aliyev, A., et al. (2007). Correlations between earthquakes and large mud volcano eruptions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 112(B4), B04304.
  16. Bonini, M. (2009). Mud volcano eruptions and earthquakes in the Northern Apennines and Sicily, Italy. Tectonophysics, 474(3-4), 723-735.
  17. Rudolph, M. L., Manga, M. (2012). Frequency dependence of mud volcano response to earthquakes. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(14), L14303.
  18. Babayev, G., Tibaldi, A., Bonali, F. L., Kadirov, F. (2014). Evaluation of earthquake-induced strain in promoting mud eruptions: the case of Shamakhi-Gobustan-Absheron areas, Azerbaijan. Natural Hazards, 72, 789-808.
  19. Hayakawa, Y. S., Kusumoto, S., Matta, N. (2017). Seismic and inter-seismic ground surface deformations of the Murono mud volcano (central Japan): a laser scanning approach. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, 4, 1-16.
  20. Kadirov, F. A., Safarov, R. T. (2013). Deformation of the Earth's crust of Azerbaijan and adjacent territories based on GPS measurements. ANAS Transactions, 1, 47-55.
  21. Kadirov, F. A., Guliyev, I. S., Feyzullayev, A. A., et al. (2014). GPS-based crustal deformations in Azerbaijan and their influence on seismicity and mud volcanism. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 50, 814-823.
  22. Antonielli, B., Monserrat, O., Bonini, M., et al. (2014). Pre-eruptive ground deformation of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes detected through satellite radar interferometry (DInSAR). Tectonophysics, 637, 163-177.
  23. Iio, K., Furuya, M. (2018). Surface deformation and source modeling of Ayaz-Akhtarma mud volcano, Azerbaijan, as detected by ALOS/ALOS-2 InSAR. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, 5(1), 1-16.
  24. Wessel, P., Luis, J. F., Uieda, L., et al. (2019). The generic mapping tools version 6. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20(11), 5556-5564.
  25. Lazecký, M., Spaans, K., González, P. J., et al. (2020). LiCSAR: an automatic InSAR tool for measuring and monitoring tectonic and volcanic activity. Remote Sensing, 12, 2430.
  26. Sandwell, D., Mellors, R., Tong, X., et al. (2011). GMTSAR: An InSAR processing system based on generic mapping tools. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Technical Report.
  27. Morishita, Y., Lazecky, M., Wright, T. J., et al. (2020). LiCSBAS: An open-source InSAR time series analysis package integrated with the LiCSAR automated Sentinel-1 InSAR processor. Remote Sensing, 12(3), 424.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400911

E-mail: kadirovf@gmail.com


S. Pourmorad*1, S. Abbasi2, A. Mohanty3

1University of Coimbra, Centre of Studies in Geography and Spatial Planning (CEGOT), FLUC, Coimbra, Portugal; 2Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshar, Iran; 3Sri Sri University, Faculty of Emerging Technologies, Odisha, India

Geochemical analysis of sediment deposits in Southwest Iran: origin and environmental impact


The integration of geochemical and sedimentological data in the Khuzestan Plain, southwestern Iran, reveals insights into its origin, pollution, and sedimentary characteristics. Facing environmental threats from external particulate matter, this study employs innovative geochemical methods to explore sediment origin, pollution, paleoclimate, and paleotectonics. Findings serve as a model for global investigations, demonstrating the utility of geochemical, petrographic, and electron microscopic data in geological applications. Field observations, granulometry, petrography, and geochemical analysis of 256 sediment samples indicate predominant silt and clay content, efficient in long-distance contaminant transport. Geochemical analysis reveals prevalent oxides (Cao, SiO2, Al2O3) and rare elements (Ti, Zr, V, Ce, La), suggesting contamination sources. Tectonic investigations identify sediment sources and heavy metal pollutants (copper, lead, zinc), crucial for pollution assessment. Swift sediment deposition in high-energy environments, particularly in the northern region, poses pollution challenges. Regional collaboration is essential, considering imported sediments during droughts, addressing pollution in Khuzestan Plain. 

Keywords: geochemical studies; environmental studies; Khuzestan plain; XRF, XRD, ICPMS and SEM methods, Pollution control, Sedimentary origin, Geotectonics.

The integration of geochemical and sedimentological data in the Khuzestan Plain, southwestern Iran, reveals insights into its origin, pollution, and sedimentary characteristics. Facing environmental threats from external particulate matter, this study employs innovative geochemical methods to explore sediment origin, pollution, paleoclimate, and paleotectonics. Findings serve as a model for global investigations, demonstrating the utility of geochemical, petrographic, and electron microscopic data in geological applications. Field observations, granulometry, petrography, and geochemical analysis of 256 sediment samples indicate predominant silt and clay content, efficient in long-distance contaminant transport. Geochemical analysis reveals prevalent oxides (Cao, SiO2, Al2O3) and rare elements (Ti, Zr, V, Ce, La), suggesting contamination sources. Tectonic investigations identify sediment sources and heavy metal pollutants (copper, lead, zinc), crucial for pollution assessment. Swift sediment deposition in high-energy environments, particularly in the northern region, poses pollution challenges. Regional collaboration is essential, considering imported sediments during droughts, addressing pollution in Khuzestan Plain. 

Keywords: geochemical studies; environmental studies; Khuzestan plain; XRF, XRD, ICPMS and SEM methods, Pollution control, Sedimentary origin, Geotectonics.

References

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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400912

E-mail: omid2red@gmail.com


R. A. Gilyazetdinov, L. S. Kuleshova, V. Sh. Mukhametshin*, R. F. Yakupov, A. A. Gizzatullina, Z. N. Sagitova

Institute of Oil and Gas, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (branch in Oktyabrsky), Russia

An integrated approach to predicting the results of the identification of deposits in conditions of different tectonic confinement of objects


In this paper, for the objects of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, confined to terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs, a study was conducted aimed at reducing risks and uncertainties when using geological and statistical models. Discriminant analysis revealed a number of inconsistencies in the grouping of objects according to the criterion of tectonic confinement, within which the migration of objects and their significant dispersion relative to the centroids of the groups were revealed. In order to level out the factors of nonlinearity and heterogeneity of processes occurring in disordered oil and gas systems, the boundaries of their stability are formed using four models using algorithms for solving the dual problem by the simplex method. Based on the data obtained, some features of the influence of parameters characterizing the geological and physical properties of productive formations and the fluids saturating them on the integrity and correctness of ideas about the degree of belonging of objects to certain grouping zones are determined. The results obtained make it possible, within the framework of proactive resource management, to create optimal or refine existing algorithms for finding the most suitable analog objects for use at newly discovered sites of the best engineering solutions and practices in the field of field development. 

Keywords: geological and statistical modeling; oil deposits; tectonic confinement of objects; geological complexes; development of oil fields; asset management of subsoil users.

In this paper, for the objects of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, confined to terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs, a study was conducted aimed at reducing risks and uncertainties when using geological and statistical models. Discriminant analysis revealed a number of inconsistencies in the grouping of objects according to the criterion of tectonic confinement, within which the migration of objects and their significant dispersion relative to the centroids of the groups were revealed. In order to level out the factors of nonlinearity and heterogeneity of processes occurring in disordered oil and gas systems, the boundaries of their stability are formed using four models using algorithms for solving the dual problem by the simplex method. Based on the data obtained, some features of the influence of parameters characterizing the geological and physical properties of productive formations and the fluids saturating them on the integrity and correctness of ideas about the degree of belonging of objects to certain grouping zones are determined. The results obtained make it possible, within the framework of proactive resource management, to create optimal or refine existing algorithms for finding the most suitable analog objects for use at newly discovered sites of the best engineering solutions and practices in the field of field development. 

Keywords: geological and statistical modeling; oil deposits; tectonic confinement of objects; geological complexes; development of oil fields; asset management of subsoil users.

References

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  9. Kuleshova, L. S., Mukhametshin, V. Sh, Rabaev, R. U., et al. (2022). Evaluation and use of the productivity coefficient for development management problems solving. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 19-26.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400913

E-mail: vsh@of.ugntu.ru


V. V. Mukhametshin*1, R. U. Rabaev2, L. S. Kuleshova1, R. V. Vafin1, M. M. Veliev1, R. R. Stepanova1, R. A. Gilyazetdinov1

1Institute of Oil and Gas, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (branch in Oktyabrsky), Russia; 2Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa, Russia

Ways to increase the resource base of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province


In the conditions of one of the most representative groups of facilities containing significant oil reserves, confined to the Tournaisian stage of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, and characterized by low rates of putting into active development, low recoverable reserves, low profitability of oil production, a study was made of the process of developing reserves under various modes operation. The reservoir energy depletion mode and the use of various in-loop waterflooding systems were considered. The parameters of waterflooding techniques have been established, which determine the oil recovery efficiency, by adjusting which, taking into account the peculiarities of the geological structure of the facilities under study, it would be possible to achieve an increase in the reserve’s depletion degree and a reduction in the cost of production. It is proposed to justify the decisions made to improve the process of developing these low-productive deposits with hard-to-recover reserves based on the obtained geological and statistical models and algorithms by using parameters, determined with minimum permissible errors at the stage of putting facilities into operation as well as using the full range of information at the stage of full drilling of the deposits. 

Keywords: oil recovery factor; hard-to-recover reserves; carbonate reservoirs; reservoir flooding; development profitability; reserves management.

In the conditions of one of the most representative groups of facilities containing significant oil reserves, confined to the Tournaisian stage of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, and characterized by low rates of putting into active development, low recoverable reserves, low profitability of oil production, a study was made of the process of developing reserves under various modes operation. The reservoir energy depletion mode and the use of various in-loop waterflooding systems were considered. The parameters of waterflooding techniques have been established, which determine the oil recovery efficiency, by adjusting which, taking into account the peculiarities of the geological structure of the facilities under study, it would be possible to achieve an increase in the reserve’s depletion degree and a reduction in the cost of production. It is proposed to justify the decisions made to improve the process of developing these low-productive deposits with hard-to-recover reserves based on the obtained geological and statistical models and algorithms by using parameters, determined with minimum permissible errors at the stage of putting facilities into operation as well as using the full range of information at the stage of full drilling of the deposits. 

Keywords: oil recovery factor; hard-to-recover reserves; carbonate reservoirs; reservoir flooding; development profitability; reserves management.

References

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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400914

E-mail: vv@of.ugntu.ru


O. V. Savenok1, N. Kh. Zharikova1, A. E. Verisokin2, Mahmoud Hadid3, I. N. Morozova*2

1Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia; 3Al-Baath University, Damascus, Syria

Increasing the efficiency of the development of hard-to-recovery oil and gas condensate field reserves by constructing multilateral horizontal wells


At present, a significant number of Russian fields have hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves. The share of hard-to-recover reserves in our country accounts for more than 65% (or 12 billion tons) of oil and gas reserves on the balance sheet (in categories A + B + C1). To develop hard-to-recover re-serves successfully, it is necessary to nurture technical and technological potential because the cur-rent technological base of the Russian Federation does not meet the growing demand. The industry requires the development of new approaches concerning exploration, drilling and enhanced oil re-covery. New technologies will make it possible to start developing unique deposits in new regions. That is why the task of implementing new effective technological solutions, which will allow hard-to-recover and low-margin hydrocarbon reserves development, is relevant today. One of the ad-vanced technological solutions is drilling multilateral horizontal wells. That can significantly increase the flow rates. 

Keywords: hard-to-recover reserves; development stimulation; development of low-permeability reservoirs; multilateral wells; multibranch wells; optimal length of the horizontal rathole; Fishbone well.

At present, a significant number of Russian fields have hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves. The share of hard-to-recover reserves in our country accounts for more than 65% (or 12 billion tons) of oil and gas reserves on the balance sheet (in categories A + B + C1). To develop hard-to-recover re-serves successfully, it is necessary to nurture technical and technological potential because the cur-rent technological base of the Russian Federation does not meet the growing demand. The industry requires the development of new approaches concerning exploration, drilling and enhanced oil re-covery. New technologies will make it possible to start developing unique deposits in new regions. That is why the task of implementing new effective technological solutions, which will allow hard-to-recover and low-margin hydrocarbon reserves development, is relevant today. One of the ad-vanced technological solutions is drilling multilateral horizontal wells. That can significantly increase the flow rates. 

Keywords: hard-to-recover reserves; development stimulation; development of low-permeability reservoirs; multilateral wells; multibranch wells; optimal length of the horizontal rathole; Fishbone well.

References

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  16. Dvoinikov, M. V. (2018). Designing of well trajectory for efficient drilling by rotary controlled systems. Journal of Mining Institute, 231, 254-262.
  17. Kruglov, D. S., Telkov, V. P. (2018). Estimation of the adequacy of methods for calculating the production rate of a horizontal well with multizone hydraulic fracturing of a formation using hydrodynamic modeling. Readings name of A. I. Bulatov-2018, 2(1), 200-206.
  18. Mostovoy, V. A., Savenok, O. V. (2019). The technology of drilling horizontal wells by means of a tele-system on the Severo-Urengoyskoye oil-gas and condensate field. Science. Engineering. Technology, 1, 316-333.
  19. Ismailov, F. S., Veliev, M. N. (2011). Liquid inflow towards horizontal and multi bottom holes in three-dimensional area. Oilfield Engineering, 9, 13-18.
  20. Kashapov, L. E., Tarakanov, A. K. (2018). Selection of optimum length of the hor-izontal well by means of statistical modeling on the basis of development indica-tors. Readings name of A. I. Bulatov-2018, 2(1), 186-193.
  21. Lushpeev, V. A., Kochetkov, L. M., Bastrikov, S. N. (2016). Method of accounting for product multilateral wells. Territory «Neftegaz», 5, 56-61. 
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400915

E-mail: irina.morozova.ncfu@mail.ru


Nguyen Tien Hung, Nguyen Minh Hoa*, Vu Hong Duong

Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam

Predicting production flow rates using artificial neural network – HST field case


Oil production flow rate prediction is a critical aspect of oil and gas exploitation operations. Currently, flow rate forecasting is often estimated using theoretical or empirical models. Theoretical and empirical models have limitations. This study applies an Artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction flow rate. The study considered 256 datasets collected from six wells in the HST Field, Cuu Long basin. The predicted results obtained from the ANN model with eight neurons and back-propagation algorithm achieved high predictability with a strong correlation coefficient of 0.964 and a low RMSE of 32.612 bbl/d. Therefore, the developed ANN models have been promised as an effective tool in production flow rate forecasting in oilfields. 

Keywords: Artificial neural network; backpropagation algorithm; flow rate prediction; multivariate regression method; gas-lift.

Oil production flow rate prediction is a critical aspect of oil and gas exploitation operations. Currently, flow rate forecasting is often estimated using theoretical or empirical models. Theoretical and empirical models have limitations. This study applies an Artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction flow rate. The study considered 256 datasets collected from six wells in the HST Field, Cuu Long basin. The predicted results obtained from the ANN model with eight neurons and back-propagation algorithm achieved high predictability with a strong correlation coefficient of 0.964 and a low RMSE of 32.612 bbl/d. Therefore, the developed ANN models have been promised as an effective tool in production flow rate forecasting in oilfields. 

Keywords: Artificial neural network; backpropagation algorithm; flow rate prediction; multivariate regression method; gas-lift.

References

  1. Tangren, R. F., Dodge, C. H., Seifert, H. S. (1949). Compressibility effects in two-phase flow. Journal of Applied Physics, 20(7), 637-645.
  2. Gilbert, W. E. (1954). Flowing and gas-lift well performance. API Drilling Production Practice, 13, 126-157.
  3. Achong, I. B. (1961). Revised bean performance formula for lake Maracaibo wells. Shell Internal Report.
  4. Baxendell, P. B. (1958). Producing wells on casing flow-an analysis of flowing pressure gradients. Petroleum Transactions, 213, 202-206.
  5. Ros, N. C. J. (1960). An analysis of critical simultaneous gas/liquid flow through a restriction and its application to flow metering. Applied Scientific Research, 9, 374-389.
  6. Al-Attar, H. H., Abdul-Majeed, G. H. (1988). Revised bean performance equation for East Baghdad oil wells. SPE Production Engineering, 3, 127-131.
  7. Al-Attar, H. H. (2008). Performance of wellhead chokes during subcritical flow of gas condensates. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 60(3-4), 205-212.
  8. Beiranvand, M. S., Mohammadmoradi, P., Aminshahidy, B., et al. (2012). New multiphase choke correlations for a high flow rate Iranian oil field. Mechanical Sciences, 3(1), 43-47.
  9. Espinoza, R. (2015, September). In digital oil field powered with new empirical equations for oil rate prediction. SPE-176750-MS. In: SPE Middle East Intelligent Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  10. Ghorbani, H., Wood, D. A., Moghadasi, J., et al. (2018). Predicting liquid flow-rate performance through wellhead chokes with genetic and solver optimizers: an oil field case study. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 9(3), 1-19.
  11. Gorjaei, R. G., Songolzadeh, R., Torkaman, M., et al. (2015). A novel PSO-LSSVM model for predicting liquid rate of two-phase flow through wellhead chokes. Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, 24, 228-237.
  12. AlAjmi, M. D., Alarifi, S. A., Mahsoon, A. H. (2015, March). In improving multiphase choke performance prediction and well production test validation using artificial intelligence: a new milestone. SPE-173394-MS. In: SPE Digital Energy Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  13. Choubineh, A., Ghorbani, H., Wood, D. A., et al. (2017). Improved predictions of wellhead choke liquid critical-flow rates: Modelling based on hybrid neural network training learning-based optimization. Fuel, 207, 547-560.
  14. Khan, M. R., Tariq, Z., Abdulraheem, A. (2018, April). In utilizing state of the art computational intelligence to estimate oil flow rate in artificial lift wells. SPE-192321-MS. In: SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  15. Barjouei, H.S., Ghorbani, H., Mohamadian, N., Wood, D.A., Davoodi, S., Moghadasi, J., Saberi, H. (2021). Prediction performance advantages of deep machine learning algorithms for two-phase flow rates through wellhead chokes. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 11, 1233-1261.
  16. Ibrahim, A. F., Al-Dhaif, R., Elkatatny, S., Al Shehri, D. (2021). Applications of artificial intelligence to predict oil rate for high gas-oil ratio and water-cut wells. ACS Omega, 6(30), 19484-19493.
  17. Azim, R. A. (2022). A new correlation for calculating wellhead oil flow rate using artificial neural network. Artificial Intelligence in Geosciences, 3, 1-7.
  18. Somorotin, A. V., Martyushev, D. A., Stepanenko, I. B. (2023) Application of machine learning methods to forecast the rate of horizontal wells. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 70-77.
  19. Kaleem, W., Tewari, S., Fogat, M., Martyushev, D. A. (2023) A hybrid machine learning approach based study of production forecasting and factors influencing the multiphase flow through surface chokes. Petroleum, In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2023.06.001
  20. Tran, D. T., Le, T. H., Tran, X. Q., et al. (2020). Application of machine learning algorithm to forecast production for fracture basement formation, central arch, Bach Ho field. PetroVietnam Journal, 12, 37-46.
  21. Nguyen, V. H., Le, P. N. (2019). Development of production prediction models for oil and gas wells. PetroVietnam Journal, 8, 14-20.
  22. Tran, D. T., Dinh, D. H, Tran, X. Q., et al. (2019) Research on applied logistic growth model to forecast production for Lower Miocene, Bach Ho field. PetroVietnam Journal, 9, 16-22.
  23. Marfo, S. A., Kporxah, C. (2020). Predicting oil production flow rate using artificial neural network and decline curve analytical methods. In: Proceedings of 6th UMaT Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference. Tarkwa, Ghana.
  24. Tripathy, S. S., Saxena, R. K., Gupta, P. K. (2013). Comparison of statistical methods for outlier detection in proficiency testing data on analysis of lead in aqueous solution. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 2(6), 233-242.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400916

E-mail: nguyenminhhoa@humg.edu.vn


M. A. Rasulov*, G. I. Jalalov

Institute of Oil and Gas, Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

Numerical method for studying the process of mass - heat transfer in deformable layers in a class of discontinuous functions


It is known that due to high thermobaric conditions during the operation of deep oil and gas fields, the parameters characterizing the rock and fluid change significantly depending on the effect of temperature and deformation. This, in turn, is reflected in the determination of factual index exploitations. The hydrodynamic models written taking into account the considered of changes form a system of nonlinear equations of the mixed type with specific characteristics and containing a high time derivative at the boundary. In numerous studies available in the literature, the solutions are found mainly using classical finite difference methods, without taking into account the characteristics of the mathematical problem. To ensure a reliable calculation of technological indicators, it is important to achieve that the hydrodynamic model adequately reflects of the process and find solutions that express all the properties of the physical process. The article proposes a solution to a mathematical model for studying the process of mass heat transfer in deformable deposits in a class of discontinues functions. 

Keywords: mass-heat transfer; deformable collector; weak solution; finite differences in the class of truncated functions.

It is known that due to high thermobaric conditions during the operation of deep oil and gas fields, the parameters characterizing the rock and fluid change significantly depending on the effect of temperature and deformation. This, in turn, is reflected in the determination of factual index exploitations. The hydrodynamic models written taking into account the considered of changes form a system of nonlinear equations of the mixed type with specific characteristics and containing a high time derivative at the boundary. In numerous studies available in the literature, the solutions are found mainly using classical finite difference methods, without taking into account the characteristics of the mathematical problem. To ensure a reliable calculation of technological indicators, it is important to achieve that the hydrodynamic model adequately reflects of the process and find solutions that express all the properties of the physical process. The article proposes a solution to a mathematical model for studying the process of mass heat transfer in deformable deposits in a class of discontinues functions. 

Keywords: mass-heat transfer; deformable collector; weak solution; finite differences in the class of truncated functions.

References

  1. Aziz, H., Settari, E. (1982). Mathematical modeling of reservoir systems. Moscow: Nedra.
  2. Abasov, M. T., Azimov, E. Kh., Kuliev, A. M. (1993). Hydro thermodynamic studies of wells in deep-seated fields. Baku: Azerbaijan State Publishing House.
  3. Calalov, G. I., Ibrahimov, T. M., Aliyev, A. A., Gorshkova, E. V. (2018). Modelling and investigation of filtration processes in deep oil and gas fields. Baku: Elm and Takhsil.
  4. Karachinsky, V. E. (1975). Methods of geothermodynamics of gas and oil deposits. Moscow: Nedra.
  5. Abasov, M. T., Rasulov, M. A., Ibrahimov, T. M., Ragimova, T. A. (1991). On a method of solving the cauchy problem for a first order nonlinear equation of hyperbolic type with a smooth initial condition. Transactions of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 43(1), 150-153,
  6. Rasulov, M. A. (2011). Conservation laws in the class of discontinuous functions. Ankara, Turkey: Seçkin Publishing House.
  7. Barenblatt, G. I., Vishik, M. I. (1956). On the finite speed of propagation in non-stationary filtering problems. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 20(Z), 411-417.
  8. Samarskii, A. A., Galaktionov, V. A., Kurdyumov, S. R., Mikhailov, A. P. (1987). Blow-up in quasi-linear parabolic equations. Moscow: Nauka.
  9. Chekalyuk, E. B., (1965). Thermodynamics oil and gas of the deposits. Moscow: Nedra.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400917

E-mail: mresulov@gmail.com


A. A. Makhmutov1, R. U. Rabaev1, M. O. Abdullah Neiser2, Sh. Kh. Sultanov1*

1Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa, Russia; 2Yemen Oil and Minerals Investment Company, Sanaa, Yemen

The rationale for carbon dioxide injection into the high viscosity oil rock formations


In this article the researchers have studied oil recovery processes under CO2 injection into non-homogeneous production banks with the use of a compositional hydrodynamic model. GHDM calculations has shown that at the reservoir conditions there will be mutual dissolution of oil and gas while injecting carbon dioxide. Oil-to-gas and gas-to-oil partial mass transfer will occur during oil displacement. The operational benefit will come as a result of reduced oil viscosity, greater cover ratio (reduced water-to-oil phase fluidity), and displacement coefficient (reduced surface tension). This benefit will amount to 8.5 tons of extra oil recovered. 

Keywords: porosity; boundary surface tension; geological hydrodynamic model; carbon dioxide.

In this article the researchers have studied oil recovery processes under CO2 injection into non-homogeneous production banks with the use of a compositional hydrodynamic model. GHDM calculations has shown that at the reservoir conditions there will be mutual dissolution of oil and gas while injecting carbon dioxide. Oil-to-gas and gas-to-oil partial mass transfer will occur during oil displacement. The operational benefit will come as a result of reduced oil viscosity, greater cover ratio (reduced water-to-oil phase fluidity), and displacement coefficient (reduced surface tension). This benefit will amount to 8.5 tons of extra oil recovered. 

Keywords: porosity; boundary surface tension; geological hydrodynamic model; carbon dioxide.

References

  1. Khisamutdinov, N. I., Gilmanova, R. Kh., Makhmutov, A. A., et al. (2017). Study of the efficiency of oil extraction from carbonate reservoirs. Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, 5, 31-36.
  2. Khisamutdinov, N. I., Gilmanova, R. Kh., Makhmutov, A. A., et al. (2018). Some methods for extracting viscous oil from carbonate reservoirs. Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, 4, 28-31.
  3. Khisamutdinov, N. I., Makhmutov, A. A., Shchekaturova, I. Sh., et al. (2019). Experience in the industrial use of carbon dioxide to intensify oil displacement in reservoir conditions. Oilfield Engineering, 4, 31-35.
  4. Gilmanova, R. Kh., Makhmutov, A. A., Kornev, E. V., Vafin, T. R. (2020). Using the methodology for constructing a permeability cube taking into account the heterogeneity of formations in oil fields of the Ural-Volga region. Oil Province, 4(24), 72-89.
  5. Bakirov, I. I., Makhmutov, A. A., Minnullin, A. G., et al. (2017). Experience in modeling the oil saturation cube in formations with heterogeneous filtration and reservoir properties at a late stage of development. Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, 12, 69-70.
  6. Chudinova, D. Y., Urakov, D. S., Sultanov, Sh. Kh., et al. (2021). Improvement of oil recovery factor from geological perspectives. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 17- 25.
  7. Urakov, D. S., Rahman, S. S., Tyson, S., et al. (2021). Conceptualizing a dual porosity occurrence in sandstones by utilizing various laboratory methods. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 8-16.
  8. Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Andreev, V. E., Dubinsky, G. S., Sultanov, Sh. Kh. (2016). Using the principles of systemic geological and technological forecasting in substantiating methods of influencing the formation. SOCAR Proceedings, 3, 45-51.
  9. tNavigator Manual - «Complete solution for reservoir engineer and geologist. Review of modules».
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400918

E-mail: ssultanov@mail.ru


R. U. Rabaev*, A. P. Chizhov, R. R. Gazizov, A. V. Chibisov, A. U. Abusal Yusef

Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa, Russia

Analysis of the results of field tests of viscoelastic compositions under the conditions of a complex terrigenous reservoir in the Caspian sea


The publication analyzes the use of viscoelastic systems in order to increase the efficiency of oil production in the Caspian fields. The conducted studies of the results of pilot field work on the introduction of polymer flooding technologies in complexly constructed terrigenous reservoirs have shown a number of disadvantages of the systems used at the pilot site. In particular, the premature destruction of the polymer compositions used and the subsequent sharp watering of the extracted products were revealed. The research covers technology tests from November 2014 to October 2021, the results of which established the presence of deteriorating dynamics in the removal of polymer material, in addition, the study revealed a high influence of thermobaric and reservoir conditions on the polymer formation process and its subsequent properties. The classic solution to the described problem is the use of compositions with higher viscosity indices, however, laboratory experiments with the use of reservoir fluid have shown a decrease in the characteristics of the compositions used while maintaining conditions close to reservoir conditions. Based on the results of the research, an approach based on a systematic solution of the problem was proposed, the existing line of agents was modernized taking into account experimental data with the reaction of compositions to reservoir fluids, including elements of control and regulation of the oil recovery process during exposure, changes in the volumes of injected polymer solutions. 

Keywords: water intrusion; systemic approach; viscoelastic systems; oil recovery.

The publication analyzes the use of viscoelastic systems in order to increase the efficiency of oil production in the Caspian fields. The conducted studies of the results of pilot field work on the introduction of polymer flooding technologies in complexly constructed terrigenous reservoirs have shown a number of disadvantages of the systems used at the pilot site. In particular, the premature destruction of the polymer compositions used and the subsequent sharp watering of the extracted products were revealed. The research covers technology tests from November 2014 to October 2021, the results of which established the presence of deteriorating dynamics in the removal of polymer material, in addition, the study revealed a high influence of thermobaric and reservoir conditions on the polymer formation process and its subsequent properties. The classic solution to the described problem is the use of compositions with higher viscosity indices, however, laboratory experiments with the use of reservoir fluid have shown a decrease in the characteristics of the compositions used while maintaining conditions close to reservoir conditions. Based on the results of the research, an approach based on a systematic solution of the problem was proposed, the existing line of agents was modernized taking into account experimental data with the reaction of compositions to reservoir fluids, including elements of control and regulation of the oil recovery process during exposure, changes in the volumes of injected polymer solutions. 

Keywords: water intrusion; systemic approach; viscoelastic systems; oil recovery.

References

  1. Chizhov, A. P., Doskazieva, G. Sh., Andreev, V. E., et al. (2021). Factors affecting the stability of polymers under flooding conditions at vostochny Moldabek field. Problems of Gathering, Treatment and Transportation of Oil and Oil Products, 6(134), 52-69.
  2. (2010). Proekt razrabotki mestorozhdeniya Zaburun'E. Atyrau: Otchet TOO «Kaspian Ehnerdzhi ReserCH». Manichand, R. N., Serajt, R. S. (2014). Field vs. laboratory polymer-retention values for a polymer flood in the
  3. Tambaredjo field. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 17(03), 314–325.
  4. Algharaib, M., Alajmi, A., Gharbi, R. (2011, May). Investigation of polymer flood performance in high salinity oil reservoirs. SPE-149133-MS. In: SPE/DGS Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  5. Farouq Ali, S. M., Thomas, S. (1989, September). The promise and problems of enhanced oil recovery methods. PETSOC-SS-89-26. In: Technical Meeting / Petroleum Conference of The South Saskatchewan Section. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  6. Delamaide, E., Tabary, R., Rousseau, D. (2014, March). Chemical EOR in low permeability reservoirs. SPE-169673-MS. In: SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  7. Stoll, U. M., Shureki, Kh., Finol, Dzh., et al. (2011). Potok shchelochej / poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv / polimerov: iz laboratorii v pole.
  8. Tovar, F. D., Barrufet, M. A., Schechter, D. S. (2014, April). Long term stability of acrylamide based polymers during chemically assisted CO2 WAG EOR. SPE-169053-MS. In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  9. Yerramilli, S. S., Zitha, P. L., Yerramilli, R. C. (2013, June). Novel insight into polymer injectivity for polymer flooding. SPE-165195-MS. In: SPE European Formation Damage Conference & Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  10. Zekhner, M., Clemens, T., Suri, A., Sharma, M. M. (2014, April). Simulation of Polymer injection under fracturing conditions - a field pilot in the Matzen field, Austria. SPE-169043-MS. In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400919

E-mail: ga3i3ov.renat@yandex.ru


G. M. Efendiyev*1, G. J. Moldabayeva2, S. V. Abbasova3, O. G. Kirisenko1

1Institute of Oil and Gas, Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2Satbayev University, Almaty, Kazakhstan; 3Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan

Assessment of the influence of composition, properties and conditions of occurrence on oil quality based on fuzzy cluster analysis


The article is devoted to the analysis and assessment of the influence of parameters characterizing the composition, properties and conditions of oil occurrence on its quality. Using the principles of the theory of fuzzy sets, modeling of the dependences of the noted characteristics of oil on the complexity of its production was carried out. Data on the properties, composition and conditions of oil occurrence in the fields of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan were collected. By implementing the fuzzy cluster analysis algorithm, fuzzy rules are formulated based on the «if..., then...» principle. The classification features are the composition, density and viscosity of oil, the permeability of the reservoir conditions. A brief analysis of existing works on the classification and assessment of the quality of oil from fields with hard-to-recover reserves showed the need to divide the total sample into homogeneous groups (clusters) according to the totality of the noted classification features characterizing the composition, properties and conditions of oil occurrences. A generalized indicator characterizing the quality of oil is proposed. 

Keywords: oil field; classification; fuzzy cluster analysis; hard-to-recover oils; sulfur concentration; density; viscosity; permeability.

The article is devoted to the analysis and assessment of the influence of parameters characterizing the composition, properties and conditions of oil occurrence on its quality. Using the principles of the theory of fuzzy sets, modeling of the dependences of the noted characteristics of oil on the complexity of its production was carried out. Data on the properties, composition and conditions of oil occurrence in the fields of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan were collected. By implementing the fuzzy cluster analysis algorithm, fuzzy rules are formulated based on the «if..., then...» principle. The classification features are the composition, density and viscosity of oil, the permeability of the reservoir conditions. A brief analysis of existing works on the classification and assessment of the quality of oil from fields with hard-to-recover reserves showed the need to divide the total sample into homogeneous groups (clusters) according to the totality of the noted classification features characterizing the composition, properties and conditions of oil occurrences. A generalized indicator characterizing the quality of oil is proposed. 

Keywords: oil field; classification; fuzzy cluster analysis; hard-to-recover oils; sulfur concentration; density; viscosity; permeability.

References

  1. Akhmetov, D. A., Efendiyev, G. M., Karazhanova, M. K., Koylibaev, B. N. (2019). Classification of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves of Kazakhstan with the use of fuzzy cluster-analysis. In: 13th International Conference on Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing, Warsaw, Poland.
  2. Efendiyev, G. M., Karazhanova, M. K., Akhmetov, D. A., Piriverdiyev, I. A. (2020). Evaluating the degree of complexity of tight oil recovery based on the classification of oils. Visnyk of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Geology, 1(88), 76-81.
  3. Efendiyev, G., Mammadov, P., Piriverdiyev, I., Mammadov, V. (2018). Estimation of the lost circulation rate using fuzzy clustering of geological objects by petrophysical properties. Visnyk of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Geology, 2(81), 28-33.
  4. Aliev, R. A., Guirimov, B. G. (2014). Type-2 fuzzy neural networks and their applications. Springer.
  5. Turksen, I. B. (2013). Full Type 2 to type n fuzzy system models. In: 7th International Conference on Soft Computing, Computing with Words and Perceptions in System Analysis, Decision and Control. Turkey, Izmir.
  6. Efendiyev, G. M., Karazhanova, M. K., Zhetekova, L. B., Abbasova, S. V. (2022). Analysis of the influence of the composition and properties of oils on their quality based on fuzzy clustering. ANAS Transactions, 1, 90-98.
  7. Aliev, R. A., Gardashova, L. A. (2020). Z-set based approach to control system design. In: 14th International Conference on Theory and Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing – ICAFS-2020. Vol. 1306.
  8. Nardone, P. J. (2009). Well test description / In book: Well testing project management. Onshore and offshore operations. Elsevier.
  9. Fang, X., Yang, Z., Yan, W., et al. (2019). Classification evaluation criteria and exploration potential of tight oil resources in key basins of China. Journal of Natural Gas Geoscience, 4(6), 309-319.
  10. Lisovsky, N. N., Halimov, E. M. (2009). On classification of hard-to-recover reserves. Bulletin of Rosnedra CDC, 6, 33-35.
  11. Purtova, I. P., Varichenko, A. I., Shpurov, I. V. (2011). Difficult to recover oil reserves. Terminology. Problems and state of development in Russia. Science of Fuel Energy Complex, 6, 21-26.
  12. Shpurov, I. V., Rastrogin, A. E., Bratkova, V. G. (2014). On the problem of developing hard-to-recover oil reserves in Western Siberia. Oil Industry, 12, 95-97.
  13. Kluvert, N.-B. L., Savenok, O. V. (2015, December). Difficult to recover hydrocarbon reserves, important resources in the territory of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In: Materials KhKh1 the International Scientific and Practical Conference, the Current State of Natural and Technical.
  14. Santos, R. G., Loh, W., Bannwart, A. C., Trevisan, O. V. (2014). An overview of heavy oil properties and its recovery and transportation methods. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 31(3), 571-590.
  15. Guo, K., Li, H., Yu, Z. (2016). In-situ heavy and extra-heavy oil recovery: A review. Fuel, 185, 886-902.
  16. Oil and gas reserves and resource quantification. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_and_gas_reserves_and_resource_quantification
  17. Aliev, R. A., Pedrycz, W., Fazlollahi, B., et al. (2012). Fuzzy logic-based generalized decision theory with imperfect information. Information Sciences, 189, 18–42.
  18. Mirzakhanov, V. E., Gardashova, L. A. (2019). Modification of the Wu-Mendel approach for linguistic summarization using IF-THEN rules. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 31, 77-97.
  19. Guirimov, B. G., Huseynov, O. H. (2018). A new compound function-based Z-number valued clustering. In: 13th International Conference on Theory and Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing — ICAFS-2018.
  20. Eliseyeva, O. A., Lukyanov, A. S. (2014). On the systematic assessment of economically acceptable resources of the oil and gas-bearing provinces of Russia, taking into account innovative technologies. Georesour. Geoenergy Geopolitics, 1.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400920

E-mail: galib_2000@yahoo.com


D. R. Salimyanova, K. A. Potashev

N. I. Lobachevsky Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

Numerical simulation of high-permeability waterflooded sublayer water shut-off under uncertainty of its location in a petroleum reservoir


The paper explores the optimal placement of the chemical blocking agent (water shut-off material) in a high-permeability watered sublayer under uncertainty of its geometry in the inter-well area. The simulation of the water flooding process at different sublayer positions and variations of blocking agent placement was performed using a high-speed computing two-dimensional model of stream tube. The decision of the optimal placement of the water shut-off agent was made using probabilistic processing of the results without using a large amount of resource-intensive numerical simulation. The relationship between the optimal water shut-off scenario and the sublayer geometry is demonstrated. The relationship between the parameters of the sublayer geometry distribution function and the probabilistic behavior of the generalized efficiency has been established. Simulations are performed for various mobility ratios: in cases with equal viscosity liquids and typical ones for reservoirs in the Volga region and Western Siberia. 

Keywords: petroleum reservoir; high-permeability layer; geological uncertainty; early water breakthrough; water shut-off; stochastic modeling; two-phase flow; model of stream tube.

The paper explores the optimal placement of the chemical blocking agent (water shut-off material) in a high-permeability watered sublayer under uncertainty of its geometry in the inter-well area. The simulation of the water flooding process at different sublayer positions and variations of blocking agent placement was performed using a high-speed computing two-dimensional model of stream tube. The decision of the optimal placement of the water shut-off agent was made using probabilistic processing of the results without using a large amount of resource-intensive numerical simulation. The relationship between the optimal water shut-off scenario and the sublayer geometry is demonstrated. The relationship between the parameters of the sublayer geometry distribution function and the probabilistic behavior of the generalized efficiency has been established. Simulations are performed for various mobility ratios: in cases with equal viscosity liquids and typical ones for reservoirs in the Volga region and Western Siberia. 

Keywords: petroleum reservoir; high-permeability layer; geological uncertainty; early water breakthrough; water shut-off; stochastic modeling; two-phase flow; model of stream tube.

References

  1. Deutsch, C. V., Pyrcz, M. J. (2014). Geostatistical reservoir modeling. Oxford University Press.
  2. Bakhshyan, N. A. (2016). The reduction of water content of wells with flow diverter technology on the example of Vankor field. International Research Journal, 6(2), 33-37.
  3. Suleimanov, B. A., Feyzullayev, Kh. A., Abbasov, E. M. (2019). Numerical simulation of water shut-off performance for heterogeneous composite oil reservoirs. Applied and Computational Mathematics, 18(3), 261-271.
  4. Suleimanov, B. A., Feyzullayev, Kh. A. (2023). Numerical simulation of water shut-off performance for heterogeneous layered oil reservoirs. SOCAR Proceedings, 1, 43-50.
  5. Grayson, C. J. (1960). Decisions under uncertainty drilling decisions by oil and gas operators. Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.
  6. Martin, J. C., Wegner R. E. (1979). Numerical solution of multiphase, two-dimensional incompressible flow using streamtube relationships. SPE Journal, 19(05), 313-323.
  7. Mazo, A. B., Potashev, K. A., Baushin, V. V., Bulygin, D. V. (2017). Numerical simulation of oil reservoir polymer flooding by the model of fixed stream tube. Georesources, 19(1), 15-20.
  8. Mazo, A. B., Potashev, K. A. (2020). Superelements. Modelling of oil fields development: monograph. Moscow. INFRA-M.
  9. Thiele, M. R. (1994). Modeling multiphase flow in heterogeneous media using streamtubes. PhD Thesis. Stanford University.
  10. Polishchuk, Y. M., Yashchenko, I. G. (2011). Analysing location of the hard-to-recover oil in Russia. Oil and gas of Western Siberia. In: International Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 55th anniversary of Tyumen State Oil and Gas University. Tyumen: TSOGU.
  11. Chekalin, A. N., Konyukhov, V. M., Kosterin, A. V. (2009). Two-phase multicomponent filtration in oil reservoirs of complex structure. Kazan: Kazan State University.
  12. Willhite, G. P. (1986). Waterflooding. Richardson: SPE Textbook Series.
  13. Barenblatt, G. I., Yentov, V. M., Ryzhik, V. M. (1984). Liquids and gases movement in natural strata. Moscow: Nedra.
  14. Potashev, K. A., Mazo, A. B. (2020). Numerical modeling of local effects on the petroleum reservoir using fixed streamtubes for typical waterflooding schemes. Georesources, 22(4), 70–78.
  15. Khamees, T., Flori, R. E., Wei, M. (2017, April). Simulation study of in-depth gel treatment in heterogeneous reservoirs with sensitivity analyses. SPE-185716-MS. In: SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  16. Fletcher, A. J. P., Flew, S., Forsdyke, I. N., et al. (1992). Deep diverting gels for very cost-effective waterflooding control. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 7, 33-43.
  17. Jahanbani Ghahfarokhi, A., Kleppe, J., Torsaeter, O. (2016, May). Simulation study of application of a water diverting gel in enhanced oil recovery. SPE-180190-MS. In: SPE Europec featured at 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400921

E-mail: DiRSalimyanova@kpfu.ru


G. G. Ismayilov1, E. Kh. Iskanderov1, V. M. Fataliyev1, A. G. Gurbanov2, F. B. Ismayilova1

1Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2UBOC, Baku, Azerbaijan

Some aspects for improving the efficiency of the development of gas condensate resources in marine conditions


The article discusses the hydraulic features of the «well, collection and transport» system and the issue of selecting the diameter of subsea pipelines at given technological limitations, flow rate and pressure at the beginning of export pipeline. Taking into account the interactions of the phases, various options for the hydraulic calculation of multiphase gas-condensate pipelines are analyzed. Provided, that economic considerations for the development of gas condensate resources require a significant revision of some traditional onshore positions in the design of offshore subsea pipelines. Analysis of the functioning of systems for collecting and transporting gas condensate mixtures is considered on the example of the development of the offshore field "Umid" in Azerbaijan, located at a distance of about 40 km from the coast. At the same time, the dynamics of the removal of accumulated fluid from the system of «well, collection and transport» showed a stable picture of preventing the hydrate formation. However, careful study shows that the cycle of accumulation and removal of the liquid phase has cyclic regime where the frequency is measured in days. Such a large frequency is mainly determined due to low condensate ratio as the natural gas. The calculation results showed that, in contrast to a single-phase flow, the distance of the gas-condensate fluid storage can’t be increased indefinitely with an increase in the diameter of the pipeline. Also, it is confirmed that the distance of the gas-condensate fluid storage depending on the diameter of the pipeline, taking into account the flow rate and pressure at the beginning, has a certain optimal value, which assures maximum stable operation. 

Keywords: gas-condensate resource; subsea pipelines; hydraulic features; multicomponent stream; gas-condensate storage; hydraulic resistance; flow regime.

The article discusses the hydraulic features of the «well, collection and transport» system and the issue of selecting the diameter of subsea pipelines at given technological limitations, flow rate and pressure at the beginning of export pipeline. Taking into account the interactions of the phases, various options for the hydraulic calculation of multiphase gas-condensate pipelines are analyzed. Provided, that economic considerations for the development of gas condensate resources require a significant revision of some traditional onshore positions in the design of offshore subsea pipelines. Analysis of the functioning of systems for collecting and transporting gas condensate mixtures is considered on the example of the development of the offshore field "Umid" in Azerbaijan, located at a distance of about 40 km from the coast. At the same time, the dynamics of the removal of accumulated fluid from the system of «well, collection and transport» showed a stable picture of preventing the hydrate formation. However, careful study shows that the cycle of accumulation and removal of the liquid phase has cyclic regime where the frequency is measured in days. Such a large frequency is mainly determined due to low condensate ratio as the natural gas. The calculation results showed that, in contrast to a single-phase flow, the distance of the gas-condensate fluid storage can’t be increased indefinitely with an increase in the diameter of the pipeline. Also, it is confirmed that the distance of the gas-condensate fluid storage depending on the diameter of the pipeline, taking into account the flow rate and pressure at the beginning, has a certain optimal value, which assures maximum stable operation. 

Keywords: gas-condensate resource; subsea pipelines; hydraulic features; multicomponent stream; gas-condensate storage; hydraulic resistance; flow regime.

References

  1. Mirzajanzadeh, A. H., Suleymanov, A. B. (1980). Marine oil ‒ a great future. Oil and Gas, 6, 37-40
  2. Vyakhirev, R. I., Nikitin, B. A., Mirzoev, D. A. (1999). Development of offshore oil and gas fields and their development. Moscow: Academy of Mining Sciences.
  3. Borodavkin, P. P. (2006). Offshore oil and gas structures. Moscow: Nedra.
  4. Guseynov, Ch. S, Ivanets, D. V. (2003). Offshore oil and gas field development. Moscow: Oil and Gas.
  5. Ismayilov, G. G. (2018). Some ways to improve the reliability and efficiency of multiphase pipelines. In: IX International Scientific and Technical Conference «Reliability and safety of main pipeline transport», Novopolotsk.
  6. Ismayilov, G. G., Fataliyev, V. M., Iskenderov, E. Kh. (2019). Investigation the impact of dissolved natural gas on the flow characteristics of multicomponent fluid in pipelines. Open Physics, 17, 206-213.
  7. Bissor, H. E., Ullmann, A., Brauner, N. (2020). Liquid displacement from lower section of hilly-terrain natural gas pipelines. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 73, 103046.
  8. Sakharov, V. A., Mokhov, M. A. (2004). Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes and field lifts. Moscow: Gubkin University.
  9. Sattarov, R. M., Kiyasbeyli, T. N., Ismayilov, G. G. et al. (1990). Methodology for hydraulic calculation of optimal operating parameters of offshore subsea pipelines when moving oil and gas combined. Baku: AzNEFTEKHIM.
  10. Guzhov, A. I. (1973). Joint collection and transport of oil and gas. Moscow: Nedra.
  11. Mamaev, V. A., Odisharia, G. E., Klapchuk, O. V., et al. (1978). Movement of gas-liquid mixtures in pipes. Moscow: Nedra.
  12. Aliev, R. A., Belousov, V. D., Nemudrov, A. G., et al. (1988). Pipeline transport of oil and gas. Moscow: Nedra.
  13. Sitenkov, V. T. (2003). Theory and calculation of two-phase systems. Oil and Gas Technologies, 3, 54-59.
  14. Lebedeva, E. V., Sitenkov, V. T. (1999). Justification of the gradient-velocity field phase interaction mechanism. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 1, 31-35.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400922

E-mail: asi_zum@mail.ru


V. P. Telkov, S. S. Sitdikov

Gubkin University, Moscow, Russia

Features of wells’s acidizing in difficult geological and field conditions: taking into account the properties of the well and the near-wellbore area


Many production and injection wells do not operate at full capacity due to damage of the near-well zone of the formation. The most frequently used and at the same time effective means of combating this problem is acid treatment of wells. Unfortunately, there are certain geological and field conditions that significantly reduce the effectiveness of acid treatments. Among them we can list the complex composition of the reservoir, heterogeneity of the reservoir, high reservoir and bottomhole temperatures, low reservoir permeability and, conversely, the presence of highly permeable zones and fractures, high water cut in well production, asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits, formation of stable emulsions upon contact of an acid solution with reservoir fluids, insufficient well preparation for acid treatment, reservoir destruction, greater thickness of the treated interval in a vertical well and a large length of the horizontal section of the horizontal well, primary treatment or retreatment, etc. However, the «sour» result of such processing can be significantly «sweetened» using modern technologies of the oil and gas industry. This article examines these situations and suggests ways to solve these problems. 

Keywords: acid treatment; improved oil recovery (IOR); well stimulation; high reservoir temperature; low permeability; high water cut; formation of stable emulsions; treatment of thick reservoirs.

Many production and injection wells do not operate at full capacity due to damage of the near-well zone of the formation. The most frequently used and at the same time effective means of combating this problem is acid treatment of wells. Unfortunately, there are certain geological and field conditions that significantly reduce the effectiveness of acid treatments. Among them we can list the complex composition of the reservoir, heterogeneity of the reservoir, high reservoir and bottomhole temperatures, low reservoir permeability and, conversely, the presence of highly permeable zones and fractures, high water cut in well production, asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits, formation of stable emulsions upon contact of an acid solution with reservoir fluids, insufficient well preparation for acid treatment, reservoir destruction, greater thickness of the treated interval in a vertical well and a large length of the horizontal section of the horizontal well, primary treatment or retreatment, etc. However, the «sour» result of such processing can be significantly «sweetened» using modern technologies of the oil and gas industry. This article examines these situations and suggests ways to solve these problems. 

Keywords: acid treatment; improved oil recovery (IOR); well stimulation; high reservoir temperature; low permeability; high water cut; formation of stable emulsions; treatment of thick reservoirs.

References

  1. Cristian, M., Socol, S., Constantinescu, A. (1985). Increasing productivity and injectivity of wells. Moscow: Nedra.
  2. Crowe, C., Masmonteil, J., Touboul, E., Thomas, R. (1996). Trends in matrix acidizing. Oilfield Review, Autumn, 20-37.
  3. Glushchenko, V. N., Silin, M. A. (2010). Oilfield chemistry. Vol. 4. Acid treatment of wells. Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka.
  4. Ibragimov, L. Kh., Mishchenko, I. T., Cheloyants, D. K. (2000). Intensification of oil production. Moscow: Nauka.
  5. Akhmerova, E. E., Shafikova, E. A., Apkarimova, G. I., et al. (2018). Selection of an effective acid composition for treating a carbonate reservoir. Bashkir Chemical Journal, 25(3), 86-92.
  6. Abdelmoneim, Sh. S., Nasr-El-Din, H. A. (2015). Determining the optimum HF concentration for stimulation of high temperature sandstone formations. SPE-174203-MS. In: SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineering.
  7. Burdin, K. V. (2023, October–November). Modern trends and challenges in the industry. Proceedings of the Russian Oil and Gas Technical Congress. Moscow.
  8. Mishchenko, I. T. (25003). Well oil production. Moscow: Oil and Gas. 
  9. Al-Harthi, S., Bastos, O. A., Samuel, M., et al. (2008). Possibilities of influx stimulation in high-temperature wells. Oilfield Review, Winter, 66-79.
  10. Asiri, H. S., Atwi, M. A., Bueno, O. H., et al. (2013). Acid treatment of fractured carbonate reservoirs. Oilfield Review, Winter, 48-65.
  11. Amelin, I. D., Surguchev, M. L., Davydov, A. V. (1994). Forecast for the development of oil deposits at a late stage. Moscow: Nedra.
  12. Almukhametova, E. M., Varisova, R. R. (2012). Application of treatments to the bottomhole zone of wells to maintain basic oil production at the Kopey-Kubovskoye field. Problems of Collection, Preparation and Transport of Oil and Petroleum Products, 4(90), 33-39.
  13. Davletshina, L. F., Tolstykh, L. I., Mikhailova, P. S. (2016). On the need to study the behavior of hydrocarbons to increase the efficiency of acid treatments of wells. Territory Neftegaz, 4, 90–97.
  14. Telkov, V. P., Lambin, D. N. (2019). Well productivity management. Moscow: Gubkin University.
  15. Silin, M. A., Magadova, L. A., Tsygankov, V. A., et al. (2011). Acid treatment of formations and testing methods for acid compositions. Moscow: Gubkin University.
  16. Magadova, L. A., Gaevoy, E. G., Pakhomov, M. D., et al. (2010). Intensifying acid composition for the treatment of low-permeability carbonate reservoirs and terrigenous reservoirs with high carbonate content. Oil Industry, 6, 80-82.
  17. Gasumov, R. A., Klimov, A. A., Gasumov, E. R. (2010). Technology of influencing the productive formation in order to intensify the influx of fluids from high-temperature wells. Bulletin of the North Caucasus State Technical University, 3(24), 19-22.
  18. Economides, M. J., Nolte, J. P. (2002). Reservoir stimulation. Huston: Wiley.
  19. Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W., et al. (2012). A comprehensive model of high-rate matrix-acid stimulation for long horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs: Part i-scaling up core-level acid wormholing to field treatments. SPE Journal, 17(1), 271–279.
  20. Hall, B. E., Tinnemeyer, A. C., Underwood, P. J. (1981). Stimulation of the North Coles Levee field with a retarded HF-acid. SPE-9934-MS. In: SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  21. Kaflayan, L. (2008). Production enhancement with acid stimulation. New York: PennWell.
  22. Shen, J., Shan, Q., Yang, Z., et al. (2011). The application of new diverted acidizing technology in Tarim oilfield DH1-H2 well. Well Testing, 20(5), 40–43.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400923

E-mail: telkov_viktor@mail.ru


M. M. Veliev1, A. A. Gizzatullina1, D. V. Pridannikov2, V. Sh. Mukhametshin1*, L. S. Kuleshova1, E. R. Vasilieva1, A. N. Salimov3

1Institute of Oil and Gas, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (branch in the city of Oktyabrsky), Russia; 2JV «Vietsovpetro», Vung Tau, Vietnam; 3Baku Higher Oil School, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan

Dynamics of thermochemical mass reaction heat generation in a simulating borehole conditions reactor device


The article presents the results of the experiment of the time and speed reaction determining on a special reactor device simulating the reagents and accompanying materials interaction. The device allows one to determine the change in temperature and pressure over time. It is noted that heat generation dynamics largely depends on the reaction rate, on the process of transporting reagents to the reaction site, the ability to remove reaction products, and the thermal transfer of materials involved in the process. 

Keywords: bottomhole formation zone; heat generation; auxiliary reagents; reaction rate; reactor device; borehole conditions; reactive mass; acid volume; mass component; water heat capacity. 

The article presents the results of the experiment of the time and speed reaction determining on a special reactor device simulating the reagents and accompanying materials interaction. The device allows one to determine the change in temperature and pressure over time. It is noted that heat generation dynamics largely depends on the reaction rate, on the process of transporting reagents to the reaction site, the ability to remove reaction products, and the thermal transfer of materials involved in the process. 

Keywords: bottomhole formation zone; heat generation; auxiliary reagents; reaction rate; reactor device; borehole conditions; reactive mass; acid volume; mass component; water heat capacity. 

References

  1. Muslimov, R. Kh. (2014). Oil recovery: past, present, future (production optimization, maximization of oil recovery). Kazan: FEN.
  2. Minnikhanov, R. N., Maganov, N. U., Khisamov, R. S. (2016). On creation of research and testing facilities to promote study of nonconventional oil reserves in Tatarstan. Oil Industry, 8, 60-63.
  3. Gasimov, A. A., Hajiyev, G. B. (2021). On management evaluation of oil-gas industry enteprises in modern economic condition. SOCAR Proceedings, 3, 100-105. 
  4. Dmitrievsky, A. N., Eremin, N. A., Safarova, E. A., Stolyarov, V. E. (2022). Mplementation of complex scientific and technical programs at the late stages of operation of oil and gas fields. SOCAR Proceedings 2, 1–8.
  5. Mukhametshin, V. V., Kuleshova, L. S. (2020). On uncertainty level reduction in managing waterflooding of the deposits with hard to extract reserves. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 331(5), 140–146.
  6. Khisamiev, T. R., Bashirov, I. R., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., et al. (2021). Results of the development system optimization and increasing the efficiency of carbonate reserves extraction of the turney stage of the chetyrmansky deposit. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 131-142.
  7. Ibragimov, N. G., Ismagilov, F. Z., Musabirov, M. Kh., Abusalimov, E. M. (2014). Analysis of well stimulation pilot projects in Tatneft OAO. Oil Industry, 7, 40-43.
  8. Economides, J. M., Nolte, K. I. (2000). Reservoir stimulation. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons.
  9. Yakupov, R. F., Rabaev, R. U., Mukhametshin, V. V., et al. (2022). Analysis of the implemented development system effectiveness, horizontal wells drilling and well interventions in the conditions of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian tier of the Znamenskoye oil field. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 97-106.
  10. Vishnyakov, V. V., Suleimanov, B. A., Salmanov, A. V., Zeynalov, E. B. (2019). Primer on enhanced oil recovery. Gulf Professional Publishing.
  11. Sergeev, V. V., Sharapov, R. R., Kudymov, A. Yu., et al. (2020). Experimental research of the colloidal systems with nanoparticles influence on filtration characteristics of hydraulic fractures. Nanotechnologies in Construction, 12(2), 100–107.
  12. Mardashov, D. V., Rogachev, M. K., Zeigman, Yu. V., Mukhametshin, V. V. (2021). Well killing technology before workover operation in complicated conditions. Energies, 14(3), 654.
  13. Сулейманов, Б. А. (2022). Теория и практика увеличения нефтеотдачи пластов. Москва-Ижевск: ИКИ.
  14. Shen, R., Lei, X., Guo, H. K., et al. (2017). The influence of pore structure on water flow in rocks from the beibu gulf oil field in china. SOCAR Proceedings, 3, 32–38.
  15. Suleimanov, B. A., Ismailov, F. S., Veliyev, E. F. (2011). Nanofluid for enhanced oil recovery. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 78(2), 431-437.
  16. Suleimanov, B. A., Rzayeva, S. C., Akberova, A. F., Akhmedova, U. T. (2022). Self-foamed biosystem for deep reservoir conformance control. Petroleum Science and Technology, 40(20), 2450-2467.
  17. Yakupov, R. F., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Khakimzyanov, I. N., Trofimov, V. E. (2019). Optimization of reserve production from water oil zones of D3ps horizon of Shkapovsky oil field by means of horizontal wells. Georesursy, 21(3), 55-61
  18. Grishchenko, V. A., Kharisov, M. N., Rabaev, R. U., et al. (2022). Solving the material balance equation in a context of uncertainty by the genetic optimization method. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 63–69.
  19. Grishchenko, V. A., Tsiklis, I. M., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Yakupov, R. F. (2021). Methodological approaches to increasing the flooding system efficiency at the later stage of reservoir development. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 161-171.
  20. Suleimanov, B. A., Rzayeva, S. C., Akhmedova, U. T. (2021). Self-gasified biosystems for enhanced oil recovery. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 35(27), 2150274.
  21. Mirzadzhanzade, A. Kh., Stepanova, G. S. (1977). Mathematical theory of experiment in oil and gas production. Moscow: Nedra.
  22. Kuleshova, L. S., Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Research and justification of innovative techniques employment for hydrocarbons production in difficult conditions. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 71-79.
  23. Rogachev, M. K., Mukhametshin, V. V., Kuleshova, L .S. (2019). Improving the efficiency of using resource base of liquid hydrocarbons in Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia. Journal of Mining Institute, 240, 711-715.
  24. Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Oil flooding in carbonate reservoirs management. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 38-44.
  25. Mukhametshin, V. V., Kuleshova, L. S. (2019). Justification of low-productive oil deposits flooding systems in the conditions of limited information amount. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 16–22.
  26. Ibragimov, N. G., Musabirov, M. Kh., Yartiev, A. F. (2014). Effectiveness of well stimulation technologies package developed by Tatneft OAO. Oil Industry, 7, 44-47.
  27. Sergeeva, L. G., Sergeev, V. V., Kinzyabaev, F. S. (2017). Critical criteria of acid treatments use in injection wells'bottom areas in carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs. Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, 4, 44-48.
  28. Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Oil recovery factor express evaluation during carbonate reservoirs development in natural regimes. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 27-37.
  29. Mukhametshin, V. V., Andreev, V. E. (2018). Increasing the efficiency of assessing the performance of techniques aimed at expanding the use of resource potential of oilfields with hard-to-recover reserves. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 329(8), 30–36.
  30. Khatmullin, I. F., Khatmullina, E. I., Khamitov, A. T., et al. (2015). Identification of zones with poor displacement in fields with hard-to-recover reserves. Oil Industry, 1, 74-79.
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  32. Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Khakimzyanov, I. N. (2021). Features of grouping low-producing oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs for the rational use of resources within the Ural-Volga region. Journal of Mining Institute, 252, 896-907.
  33. Mukhametshin, V. V. (2021). Improving the efficiency of managing the development of the west siberian oil and gas province fields on the basis of differentiation and grouping. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 62(12), 1373–1384.
  34. Suleimanov, B. A., Ismailov, F. S., Dyshin, O. A., Veliyev, E. F. (2016). Selection methodology for screening evaluation of EOR methods. Petroleum Science and Technology, 34(10), 961-970.
  35. Yakupov, R. F., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Tyncherov, K. T. (2018). Filtration model of oil coning in a bottom water-drive reservoir. Periodico Tche Quimica, 15(30), 725-733. 
  36. Mukhametshin, V. V. (2020). Oil production facilities management improving using the analogy method. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 42-50.
  37. Shuster, V. L. (2022). Features of formation and placement of large and giant oil and gas deposits in megareservaries of sedimentary basins. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 30–38.
  38. Grishchenko, V. A., Rabaev, R. U., Asylgareev, I. N., et al. (2021). Methodological approach to optimal geological and technological characteristics determining when planning hydraulic fracturing at multilayer facilities. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 182-191.
  39. Mukhametshin, V. V. (2018). Rationale for trends in increasing oil reserves depletion in Western Siberia cretaceous deposits based on targets identification. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 329(5), 117–124.
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  41. Rabaev, R. U., Chibisov, A. V., Kotenev, A. Yu., et al. (2021). Mathematical modelling of carbonate reservoir dissolution and prediction of the controlled hydrochloric acid treatment efficiency. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 40-46.
  42. Rogachev, M. K., Mukhametshin, V. V. (2018). Control and regulation of the hydrochloric acid treatment of the bottomhole zone based on field-geological data. Journal of Mining Institute, 231, 275-280.
  43. Orlova, I. O., Zakharchenko, E. I., Skiba, N. K., Zakharchenko, Yu. I. (2014). Methodical approach to fields classification and fields-analogues prospecting. Geology, Geophysics and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, 12, 16-18.
  44. Veliev, M. M., Bondarenko, V. A., Zung, L. V., et al. (2019). Technique and technology of oil production on the shelf of the fields of the joint Venture «Vietsovpetro». Sankt-Petersburg: Nedra.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400924

E-mail: vsh@of.ugntu.ru


L. S. Kuleshova

Institute of Oil and Gas, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (branch in the city of Oktyabrsky), Russia

On filtering information to justify management decisions in oil production


Based on the consistent image recognition techniques application and quantitative and qualitative indicators characterizing the tectonic and stratigraphic confinement and features of the geological structure of deposits, an algorithm has been developed allowing filtering scientific information about the effectiveness of oil deposits in Devonian terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province. The algorithm makes it possible to identify twenty-one groups of facilities the development experience of which can be accurately used to reduce the risks of making decision errors aimed at development process optimizing both in the conditions of «mature» deposits and in the conditions of deposits being put into development. 

Keywords: terrigenous reservoir; image recognition technique; tectonic-stratigraphic confinement of deposits; geological-physical and physical-chemical properties of layers; facilities identification.

Based on the consistent image recognition techniques application and quantitative and qualitative indicators characterizing the tectonic and stratigraphic confinement and features of the geological structure of deposits, an algorithm has been developed allowing filtering scientific information about the effectiveness of oil deposits in Devonian terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province. The algorithm makes it possible to identify twenty-one groups of facilities the development experience of which can be accurately used to reduce the risks of making decision errors aimed at development process optimizing both in the conditions of «mature» deposits and in the conditions of deposits being put into development. 

Keywords: terrigenous reservoir; image recognition technique; tectonic-stratigraphic confinement of deposits; geological-physical and physical-chemical properties of layers; facilities identification.

References

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  43. Grishchenko, V. A., Gareev, R. R., Tsiklis, I. M., et al. (2021). Expanding the amount of preferential royalty facilities with hard-to-recover oil reserves. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 8-18.
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  46. Mukhametshin, V. V. (2020). Oil production facilities management improving using the analogy method. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 42-50.
  47. Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Khakimzyanov, I. N. (2021). Features of grouping low-producing oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs for the rational use of resources within the Ural-Volga region. Journal of Mining Institute, 252, 896-907.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400925

E-mail: markl212@mail.ru


R. F. Yakupov1,2, V. V. Mukhametshin2*, B. M. Mukhamadeev3, M. R. Yakupov4, O. V. Danilova2, D. I. Zelensky2

1LLC «Bashneft-Mining», Ufa, Russia; 2Institute of Oil and Gas, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (branch in the city of Oktyabrsky), Russia; 3LLC «RN-BashNIPIneft», Ufa, Russia; 4Kazan (Volga Region) State University, Kazan, Russia

Problems of development of carbonate reservoirs by horizontal wells


The article deals with the issue of improving the efficiency of the development of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian tier. The object is characterized by a complex geological structure, has degraded filtration-capacitance properties and anisotropy of parameters. In recent years, oil production at the Tournai facility has increased nine times due to the active formation of a system for developing and increasing the volume of drilling horizontal wells. The historical experience of drilling horizontal wells at the C1t facility is analyzed, which is conditionally divided into two stages, differing in the approach to drilling based on the technologies available at each stage. The development of drilling technology, the influence of the type of completion and location of wells on deposits is considered. The implementation of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing confirms high efficiency in deposits with high fragmentation and heterogeneity of the productive section, in conditions of low-permeable reservoirs in order to increase the degree of production and the rate of selection of reserves. 

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs; optimal horizontal well length; type of completion; multi-stage hydraulic fracturing; sampling rate; optimization of the development system.

The article deals with the issue of improving the efficiency of the development of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian tier. The object is characterized by a complex geological structure, has degraded filtration-capacitance properties and anisotropy of parameters. In recent years, oil production at the Tournai facility has increased nine times due to the active formation of a system for developing and increasing the volume of drilling horizontal wells. The historical experience of drilling horizontal wells at the C1t facility is analyzed, which is conditionally divided into two stages, differing in the approach to drilling based on the technologies available at each stage. The development of drilling technology, the influence of the type of completion and location of wells on deposits is considered. The implementation of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing confirms high efficiency in deposits with high fragmentation and heterogeneity of the productive section, in conditions of low-permeable reservoirs in order to increase the degree of production and the rate of selection of reserves. 

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs; optimal horizontal well length; type of completion; multi-stage hydraulic fracturing; sampling rate; optimization of the development system.

References

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  3. Miroshnichenko, A. V., Sergeichev, A. V., Korotovskikh, V. A., et al. (2022). Innovative technologies for the lowpermeability reservoirs development in Rosneft oil company. Oil Industry, 10, 105–109.
  4. Mukhametshin, V. V., Kuleshova, L. S. (2022). Improving the lower cretaceous deposits development efficiency in Western Siberia employing enhanced oil recovery. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 9-18.
  5. Khisamiev, T. R., Bashirov, I. R., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., et al. (2021). Results of the development system optimization and increasing the efficiency of carbonate reserves extraction of the Turney stage of the Chetyrmansky deposit. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 131-142.
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  8. Grishchenko, V. A., Pozdnyakova, T. V., Mukhamadiyev, B. M., et al. (2021). Improving the carbonate reservoirs development efficiency on the example of the Tournaisian stage deposits. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 238-247.
  9. Grishchenko, V. A., Tsiklis, I. M., Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Yakupov, R. F. (2021). Methodological approaches to increasing the flooding system efficiency at the later stage of reservoir development. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 161-171.
  10. Kondratyev, S. A., Zhukovsky, A. A., Kochneva, T. S., Malysheva, V. L. (2016). Some experience of the formation proppant fracturine in carbonate reservoirs of Perm region deposits. Oilfield Engineering, 6, 23-26.
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  16. Kudryashov, S. I., Khasanov, M. M., Krasnov, V. A., et al. (2007). Technologies application patterns – an effective way of knowledge systematization. Oil Industry, 11, 7-9.
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  18. Yakupov, R. F., Khakimzyanov, I. N., Mukhametshin, V. V., Kuleshova, L. S. (2021). Hydrodynamic model application to create a reverse oil cone in water-oil zones. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 54-61.
  19. Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Khakimzyanov, I. N. (2021). Features of grouping low-producing oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs for the rational use of resources within the Ural-Volga region. Journal of Mining Institute, 252, 896-907.
  20. Arzhilovsky, A. V., Afonin, D. G., Ruchkin, A. A., et al. (2022). Express assessment of the increase in the oil recovery as a result of water-alternating-gas technology application. Oil Industry, 9, 63-67.
  21. Zaripov, A. T., Khusainov, V. M., Kabirova, A. Kh. (2022). Effect of geological environment temperature and oil composition on hydrocarbon withdrawal in Tatarstan fields. Oil Industry, 9, 74–77.
  22. Brilliant, L. S., Zavialov, A. S., Danko, M. U., et al. (2019). Integration of machine learning methods and geological and hydrodynamic modeling in field development design. Oil Industry, 10, 48-53.
  23. Mukhametshin, V. V., Bakhtizin, R. N., Kuleshova, L. S., et al. (2021). Screening and assessing the conditions for effective oil recovery enhancing techniques application for hard to recover high-water cut reserves. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 48-56.
  24. Mukhametshin, V. Sh., Khakimzyanov, I. N., Bakhtizin, R. N., Kuleshova, L. S. (2021). Differentiation and grouping of complex-structured oil reservoirs in carbonate reservoirs in development management problems solving. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 88-97.
  25. Kuleshova, L. S., Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Research and justification of innovative techniques employment for hydrocarbons production in difficult conditions. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 71-79.
  26. Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Oil recovery factor express evaluation during carbonate reservoirs development in natural regimes. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 27-37.
  27. Vishnyakov, V. V., Suleimanov, B. A., Salmanov, A. V., Zeynalov, E. B. (2019). Primer on enhanced oil recovery. Gulf Professional Publishing.
  28. Novikov, M. G., Islamov, A. I., Takhautdinov, R. Sh. (2021). Evolution of production intensification methods in the course of development of deposits in the tournaisian stage of Sheshmaoil company's oilfields: from acid stimulation to hybrid fracturing. Oil. Gas. Innovations, 3(244), 58-61.
  29. Grishchenko, V. A., Gareev, R. R., Tsiklis, I. M., et al. (2021). Expanding the amount of preferential royalty facilities with hard-to-recover oil reserves. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 8-18.
  30. Mukhametshin, V. Sh. (2022). Oil flooding in carbonate reservoirs management. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 38-44.
  31. Suleimanov, B. A., Ismailov, F. S., Veliyev, E. F., Dyshin, O. A. (2013). The influence of light metal nanoparticles on the strength of polymer gels used in oil industry. SOCAR Proceedings, 2, 24-28.
  32. Suleimanov, B. A., Ismailov, F. S., Veliyev, E. F. (2011). Nanofluid for enhanced oil recovery. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 78(2), 431-437.
  33. Suleimanov, B. A. (2006). Specific features of heterogenous systems flow. Moscow-Izhevsk: ICS.
  34. Fattakhov, I. G., Kuleshova, L. S., Bakhtizin, R. N., et al. (2021). Complexing the hydraulic fracturing simulation results when hybrid acid-propant treatment performing and with the simultaneous hydraulic fracture initiation in separated intervals. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 103-111.
  35. Khuzin, R. R., Bakhtizin, R. N., Andreev, V. E., et al. (2021). Oil recovery enhancement by reservoir hydraulic compression technique employment. SOCAR Proceedings, SI1, 98-108.
  36. Yakupov, R. F., Rabaev, R. U., Mukhametshin, V. V., et al. (2022). Analysis of the implemented development system effectiveness, horizontal wells drilling and well interventions in the conditions of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian tier of the Znamenskoye oil field. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 97-106.
  37. Grishchenko, V. A., Rabaev, R. U., Asylgareev, I. N., et al. (2021). Methodological approach to optimal geological and technological characteristics determining when planning hydraulic fracturing at multilayer facilities. SOCAR Proceedings, SI2, 182-191.
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  39. Agishev, E. R., Dubinsky, G. S., Mukhametshin, V. V., et al. (2022). Prediction of hydraulic fracturing fracture parameters based on the study of reservoir rock geomechanics. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 107–116.
  40. Mukhametshin, V. V. (2020). Oil production facilities management improving using the analogy method. SOCAR Proceedings, 4, 42-50.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400926

E-mail: vv@of.ugntu.ru


Sh. Z. Ismailov, E. E. Shmoncheva, G. V. Jabbarova

Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan

Experimental study of swellable packers behaviour in drilling fluids with different salt concentrations


Water-swellable packers are designed using elastomeric components that have a unique swelling property when exposed to water or water-based fluids. The swelling of the elastomer creates a tight seal. Water-swellable packers offer several advantages in well construction and maintenance. They can be used for a variety of purposes including preventing gas migration, shutting off water flow, and facilitating fracturing operations. It is assumed that the degree of swelling and rate of expansion depends on factors such as elastomer composition, conditions in the wellbore, and the salinity of the surrounding fluids. The use of water-swellable packers requires careful consideration of well conditions and the fluids present. Matching the packer's swelling properties to the intended well’s fluids is essential to achieve effective zonal isolation. Proper elastomer compatibility testing and evaluation is recommended prior to field deployment to ensure successful and reliable packer operation. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to experimentally confirm the possibility of expanding packers in water with different salt concentrations. 

Keywords: swellable packers; elastomeric components; swelling property; brines; salinity; elastomer compatibility testing; laboratory evaluation; swelling rate.

Water-swellable packers are designed using elastomeric components that have a unique swelling property when exposed to water or water-based fluids. The swelling of the elastomer creates a tight seal. Water-swellable packers offer several advantages in well construction and maintenance. They can be used for a variety of purposes including preventing gas migration, shutting off water flow, and facilitating fracturing operations. It is assumed that the degree of swelling and rate of expansion depends on factors such as elastomer composition, conditions in the wellbore, and the salinity of the surrounding fluids. The use of water-swellable packers requires careful consideration of well conditions and the fluids present. Matching the packer's swelling properties to the intended well’s fluids is essential to achieve effective zonal isolation. Proper elastomer compatibility testing and evaluation is recommended prior to field deployment to ensure successful and reliable packer operation. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to experimentally confirm the possibility of expanding packers in water with different salt concentrations. 

Keywords: swellable packers; elastomeric components; swelling property; brines; salinity; elastomer compatibility testing; laboratory evaluation; swelling rate.

References

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  9. Alakberi, R. S., Igein, O. F., Aljasmi, S. A. (2023). Successful smart completion deployment of autonomous inflow control valve with 13 open hole segmentation lower completion using a light workover rig. SPE-214582-MS. In: SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  10. Li, W., Sahu, Q. (2023, March). A review: progress of diverter technology for oil and gas production applications in the past decade. SPE-214118-MS. In: Gas & Oil Technology Showcase and Conference, Dubai, UAE. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  11. Evers, R., Young, D. A., Vargus, G. W., Solhaug, K. (2009, May). Design methodology for swellable elastomer packers in fracturing operations. OTC-20157-MS. In: Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  12. Yahya, M. A., Alhathnawi, M. I. (2022, October). First run of 17 swellable packers in Sahil field with 15 AICV as a first new technology trial in ADNOC onshore. SPE-211771-MS. In: ADIPEC, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  13. Hinkie, R. (2010). Non-cemented casing tieback string reduces expense and risk in deepwater operations. SPE-137852-MS. In: SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, USA. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  14. Wellhoefer, B., Stegent, N., Tunstall, M., et al. (2013). Unique solution to repair casing failure in a HP/HT wellbore allows for successful multistage stimulation treatment in an unconventional reservoir. SPE Drilling and Completion, 28, 237–242.
  15. Kazimov, Sh. P., Abdullaeva, E. S., Racabov, N. M. (2015). Structure of swelling packers and their applicability in the fields of Azerbaijan. SOCAR Proceedings, 3, 43–51.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400927

E-mail: yelena.shmoncheva@asoiu.edu.az


R. G. Alakbarov, M. A. Hashimov*

Institute of Information Technology, Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

Application problems of cloud-based scada systems in the oil and gas industry


SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems play an important role in the oil and gas industry providing real-time monitoring, control and data acquisition of critical infrastructure. Unlike traditional SCADA systems based on local hardware and software, cloud-based SCADA systems take advantage of cloud computing technologies for real-time data collection and management. Cloud-based SCADA systems offer many advantages due to their scalability, flexibility and cost-effectiveness. To take advantage of these advantages, it is required to solve a number of problems related to the application of cloud-based SCADA systems in the oil and gas industry. One of the most important application challenges is the cybersecurity issues arising in cloud-based SCADA systems, which are a significant concern due to the critical nature of the infrastructure they control. Thus, the systems face various vulnerabilities and threats that can destroy the data integrity and the system's availability. This article outlines the current cyber-attacks that can compromise the security of cloud-based SCADA systems. Threats and vulnerabilities in using cloud-based SCADA systems are analyzed, and suggestions are made that partially help to solve them. Some security mechanisms are recommended to ensure the security of cloud-based SCADA systems. These mechanisms will help increase the reliability and security of cloud-based SCADA system operations in the oil and gas industry. 

Keywords: SCADA systems; cloud computing; cloud-based SCADA systems; SCADA security; cloud security.

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems play an important role in the oil and gas industry providing real-time monitoring, control and data acquisition of critical infrastructure. Unlike traditional SCADA systems based on local hardware and software, cloud-based SCADA systems take advantage of cloud computing technologies for real-time data collection and management. Cloud-based SCADA systems offer many advantages due to their scalability, flexibility and cost-effectiveness. To take advantage of these advantages, it is required to solve a number of problems related to the application of cloud-based SCADA systems in the oil and gas industry. One of the most important application challenges is the cybersecurity issues arising in cloud-based SCADA systems, which are a significant concern due to the critical nature of the infrastructure they control. Thus, the systems face various vulnerabilities and threats that can destroy the data integrity and the system's availability. This article outlines the current cyber-attacks that can compromise the security of cloud-based SCADA systems. Threats and vulnerabilities in using cloud-based SCADA systems are analyzed, and suggestions are made that partially help to solve them. Some security mechanisms are recommended to ensure the security of cloud-based SCADA systems. These mechanisms will help increase the reliability and security of cloud-based SCADA system operations in the oil and gas industry. 

Keywords: SCADA systems; cloud computing; cloud-based SCADA systems; SCADA security; cloud security.

References

  1. Stojanović, M. D., Boštjanĉiĉ Rakas, S. V., Marković-PetroviC, J. D. (2019). Scada systems ın the cloud and fog envıronments: mıgratıon scenarıos and securıty ıssues. Electronics and Energetics, 32(3), 345–358.
  2. Alshehry, F. F., Wali, A. M. (2022). Analysis of security challenges in cloud-based SCADA systems: A survey. TechRxiv. Preprint.
  3. Alakbarov, R. K., Hashimov, M. A. (2020). Migration issues of SCADA systems to the Cloud Computing Environment (review). SOCAR Proceedings, 3, 155-164.
  4. Alakbarov, R. K., Hashimov, M. A. (2018). Application of the internet of things in oil-gas industry. In: 6th International Conference on Control and Optimization with Industrial Applications.
  5. Nazir, S., Patel, S., Patel, D. (2017). Assessing and augmenting SCADA cyber security: A survey of techniques. Computers & Security, 70, 436-454.
  6. Sajid, A., Abbas, H., Saleem, K. (2016). Cloud-assisted IoT-based SCADA systems security: A review of the state of the art and future challenges. IEEE Access, 4, 1375–1385.
  7. Bere, M., Muyingi, H. (2015). Initial investigation of industrial control system (ICS) security using artificial immune system (AIS). In: International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC).
  8. Cagalaban, G., Kim, T., Kim, S. (2008). Improving SCADA control systems security with software vulnerability analysis. In: 12th WSEAS International Conference on Automatic Control, Modelling & Simulation.
  9. Davis, C., Tate, J., Okhravl, H., et al. (2006). SCADA cyber security testbed development. In: 38th North American Power Symposium.
  10. Kang, U., Chau, D., Faloutsos, C. (2012). Pegasus: mining billion-scale graphs in the cloud. In: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan.
  11. Shen, J., Xu, J., Cai, K., Ji, Y. (2021). Access point authentication scheme of Scada system based on cloud computing technology. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 1748(2), 1-6.
  12. Alakbarov, R. Q., Hashimov, M. A. (2014). Possibilities and prospects of using cloud technologies in the electronic government. In: First Republic Scientific-Practical Conference on E-Science Problems.
  13. Piggin, R. S. H. (2014). Securing SCADA in the cloud: managing the risks to avoid the perfect storm. In: IET & ISA 60th International Instrumentation Symposium.
  14. Kyle,W. (2013). SCADA in the cloud a security conundrum?. Trend Micro Incorporated Research Paper. https://blog. trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/scada-in-the-cloud a-security-conundrum/
  15. Alakbarov, R., Hashimov, M. (2022). Security issues of cloud-based SCADA systems. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - D: Information and Communication Security, 62, 1-8.
  16. Alakbarov, R. K., Hashimov, M. A. (2020). Security issues of SCADA systems in cloud computing environment. In: 7th International Conference on Control and Optimization with Industrial Applications.
  17. Fernandez, J., Fernandez, A. (2005). SCADA systems: vulnerabilities and remediation. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 20(4), 160-168.
  18. Nazir, S., Patel, Sh., Patel, D. (2020). Cloud-based autonomic computing framework for securing SCADA systems /in book: Innovations, Algorithms, and Applications in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence. IGI Global.
  19. Igure, V., Williams, R. (2006). Security and SCADA protocols. In: 5th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies (NPIC HMIT).
  20. Alakbarov, R., Hashimov, M. (2020). Security issues in cloud-based SCADA systems. Information Technology Problems, 2, 3-12.
  21. Wang, Y. (2012). SCADA: Securing SCADA infrastructure communications. International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems, 6(1), 59-78.
  22. Alakbarov, R. (2021). Cloud-based electronic government system: state-of-the-art, problems and security issues. Information Society Problems, 1, 18-31.
  23. Howard, P. A. (2015). Security checklist for SCADA systems in the cloud. https://gcn.com/cloud-infrastructure/2015/06/a-security-checklist-for-scada-systems-in-the-cloud/287164/
  24. Ferrag, M. A. Babaghayou, M. Yazici, M. A. (2020). Cyber security for fog-based smart grid SCADA systems: solutions and challenges. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 52, 102500.
  25. Cui, L., Xie, G., Qu, Y., et al. (2018). Security and privacy in smart cities: challenges and opportunities. IEEE Access, 6, 46134–46145.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400928

E-mail: mamedhashimov@gmail.com


A. Sh. Kanbetov*, D. K. Kulbatyrov, A. A. Abilgazieva, A. K. Shakhmanova

Atyrau Oil and Gas University named after Safi Utebayev, Atyrau, Kazakhstan

Conditions of bottom deposit contamination in north-eastern Caspian field


The fields developing on the shelf of the northern Caspian Sea, which belongs to the shallow water zone, are where the breeding and nagulation of semi-passable fish mainly occurs. In this regard, studies of bottom sediments where macrozoobentos is concentrated, which is a feed of benthic fish, are a problem that requires research into the state of not only pollution of bottom sediments but also the state of macrozoobenthos. In this regard, this article is aimed at detecting the state of pollution of bottom sediments by heavy metals and the state of macrozoobenthos, the number and biomass distribution. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the «The guide to methods of hydrobiological analysis of surface waters and bottom sediments» and the «The methodological manual for hydrobiological fisheries research of Kazakhstan reservoirs». The article presents the results of the state of pollution of bottom deposition by heavy metals on the structures of Kashagan, Aktoty, Kairan and the number and species composition of macrozoobenthos. The article revealed that the content of metals in bottom sediments in the studied areas was quite stable and mainly changed in a small range in all seasons of 2019. The species composition of macrozoobenthos was quite homogeneous throughout the surveyed area of the sea. The number of bottom invertebrates varied within relatively small limits, with a more expressed range of biomass fluctuations. 

Keywords: bottom sediments; Kashagan; Aktoty; Kairan; heavy metals; macrobenthos.

The fields developing on the shelf of the northern Caspian Sea, which belongs to the shallow water zone, are where the breeding and nagulation of semi-passable fish mainly occurs. In this regard, studies of bottom sediments where macrozoobentos is concentrated, which is a feed of benthic fish, are a problem that requires research into the state of not only pollution of bottom sediments but also the state of macrozoobenthos. In this regard, this article is aimed at detecting the state of pollution of bottom sediments by heavy metals and the state of macrozoobenthos, the number and biomass distribution. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the «The guide to methods of hydrobiological analysis of surface waters and bottom sediments» and the «The methodological manual for hydrobiological fisheries research of Kazakhstan reservoirs». The article presents the results of the state of pollution of bottom deposition by heavy metals on the structures of Kashagan, Aktoty, Kairan and the number and species composition of macrozoobenthos. The article revealed that the content of metals in bottom sediments in the studied areas was quite stable and mainly changed in a small range in all seasons of 2019. The species composition of macrozoobenthos was quite homogeneous throughout the surveyed area of the sea. The number of bottom invertebrates varied within relatively small limits, with a more expressed range of biomass fluctuations. 

Keywords: bottom sediments; Kashagan; Aktoty; Kairan; heavy metals; macrobenthos.

References

  1. Nesterov, E. S. (2016). Water balance and Caspian Sea level fluctuations. Modelling and forecasting. Moscow: Triada Ltd.
  2. Kaplin P.A., Ignatov E.I. (1997). Geo-ecological changes in the Caspian Sea level fluctuations. Vol. 1. Geoecology of the Caspian Sea. Moscow: Moscow State University.
  3. Neftegaz.RU https://neftegaz.ru/news/dobycha/539689-nakoplennyy-obem-dobychi-nefti-na-kashaganskommestorozhdenii-v-kazakhstane-s-momenta-perezapuska-do/
  4. Kostianoy, A. G., Kosarev, A. N. (2005). Physico-geographical conditions of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea environment. Vol. 5. Part P. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer–Verlag.
  5. Zonn, I. S., Zhiltsov, S. S. (2008). New Caspian: geography, economics, politics. Moscow: AST Vostok-Zapad.
  6. Kenzhegaliev, A., Kanbetov, A. S., Abylgazieva, A. A., et al. (2019). Condition of bottom sediment in the area of artificial islands of the Kashagan field, Kazakhstan. South of Russia: Ecology, Developmen, 14(3), 144-153.
  7. Kenzhegaliyev, A., Orazbaev, B. B., Zhumagaliev, S. Z., Kenzhegaliyeva, D. A. (2013). Researches of an ecological condition of hydrobiological communities of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea in preparation of oil and gas fields for development. Life Safety, 10, 39-44.
  8. Orazbaev, B. B., Zhumagaliev, S. Z., Kenzhegaliyeva, D. A. (2017). The state of hydrobionts in the area of the artificial island «D» Kashagan field. Oil and Gas, 1, 77-90.
  9. (2003). ISO 17294-2:2003 «Water quality. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Part 2: Determination of 62 elements, IDT.
  10. (2009). ISO 5667-15:2009. Water quality. Sampling - Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples.
  11. (2004). ISO 5667-19:2004. Water quality. Sampling - Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments.
  12. (2007). ISO 19493:2007. Water quality — Guidance on marine biological surveys of hardsubstrate communities.
  13. (1983). Manual of methods for hydrobiological analysis of surface water and bottom sediments. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat.
  14. (2000). State of biodiversity in the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea. Atyrau: National Report of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  15. Romanova, N. N. (1983). Methodical instructions for the study of benthos of the southern seas of the USSR. Moscow: VNIRO.
  16. Mordukhai-Boltovskaya, F. D. (1975). Methodology of studying biogeocenoses of inland water bodies. Moscow: Nauka.
  17. (2006). Methodological manual for hydrobiological fishery research of water bodies of Kazakhstan (plankton, zoobenthos). Almaty.
  18. Bernstein, J. A. (1968). Atlas of invertebrates of the Caspian Sea. Moscow: VNIRO.
  19. (2018). Marine impact monitoring. Report on research and development (final). Almaty: Kazakhstan Agency of Applied Ecology LLP.
  20. (2019). Marine impact monitoring. Research and development report (final). Almaty: Kazakhstan Agency of Applied Ecology LLP.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400929

E-mail: a.kanbetov@mail.ru


R. E. Levitin

Tyumen Industrial University, Tyumen, Russia

Formation of new, «green» tools for regulation of hydrocarbon emissions from vertical steel tanks based on an analysis of the experience of the United States and Russia


The legislation of the Russian Federation regulating hydrocarbon emissions is a complex hierarchical structure formed by legal acts located at its different levels. Emissions to the atmosphere from tanks are directly determined according to guidelines developed and approved by the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Environmental Protection with the participation of the Atmosphere Research Institute in 1999. In the USA, emissions to the atmosphere from tanks are determined according to standards developed by the American Petroleum Institute API MPMS 19-1 and API MPMS 19-2. All of these methods have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The paper analyzes Russian and American methods on the example of a vertical steel tank (VST), and also proposes new tools for monitoring safe and environmentally friendly operation. Methods for determining emissions used in the United States, unlike Russian ones, are also officially regulated tools for determining the loss of hydrocarbons from evaporation. Such a system makes it possible to avoid discrepancies in the volumes of emissions obtained by different committees and services, taking into account the same physical processes. Therefore, in Russia it is necessary to obtain a unified calculation scheme and methodology for determining emissions from reservoirs. 

Keywords: oil losses, reservoir storage, hydrocarbon emissions, oil evaporation, rates of natural loss, storage in VST.

The legislation of the Russian Federation regulating hydrocarbon emissions is a complex hierarchical structure formed by legal acts located at its different levels. Emissions to the atmosphere from tanks are directly determined according to guidelines developed and approved by the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Environmental Protection with the participation of the Atmosphere Research Institute in 1999. In the USA, emissions to the atmosphere from tanks are determined according to standards developed by the American Petroleum Institute API MPMS 19-1 and API MPMS 19-2. All of these methods have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The paper analyzes Russian and American methods on the example of a vertical steel tank (VST), and also proposes new tools for monitoring safe and environmentally friendly operation. Methods for determining emissions used in the United States, unlike Russian ones, are also officially regulated tools for determining the loss of hydrocarbons from evaporation. Such a system makes it possible to avoid discrepancies in the volumes of emissions obtained by different committees and services, taking into account the same physical processes. Therefore, in Russia it is necessary to obtain a unified calculation scheme and methodology for determining emissions from reservoirs. 

Keywords: oil losses, reservoir storage, hydrocarbon emissions, oil evaporation, rates of natural loss, storage in VST.

References

  1. Hermawan, Y. D., Kristanto, D., Hariyadi. (2021). Oil losses problem in oil and gas industries, Yogyakarta, Indonesia /in: Crude Oil – New Technologies and Recent Approaches. IntechOpen.
  2. (2020). API Standarts: International usage and deployment. American Petroleum Institute.
  3. Levitin, R. E. (2018). Normalization of hydrocarbon emissions in Germany. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 357, 012019.
  4. Tomás Guillermo, M. C. (2010). Recuperación de vapores hidrocarburos en cúpulas de tanques de almacenamiento con un equipo no convencional. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  5. (1999). Federal Law "On the protection of atmospheric air" N 96-FZ dated 4 May 1999 RF.
  6. (2002). Federal Law "On environmental protection" No. 7-FZ dated 12 January 2002 RF.
  7. (1999). Methodical instructions for pollutant emissions determination into the atmosphere from res-ervoirs. Kazan: Kazan management "Orgneftekhimzavods", State Committee for Environmental Protection of the Russian Federation.
  8. (2002). API Manual of petroleum measurement standards. Chapter 19 - Evaporative-loss measure-ment, Section 1 - Evaporative loss from fixed-roof tanks. Third Edition. American Petroleum Institute.
  9. (2003). API Manual of petroleum measurement standards. Chapter 19 - evaporative-loss measure-ment, Section 2 - Evaporative loss from floating-roof tanks. Second Edition. American Petroleum Institute.
  10. (2006). EPA emission factor documentation for AP-42, Section 7.1. Organic liquid storage tanks. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Emission Fac-tor and Inventory Group.
  11. Levitin, R. E. (2015). Foreign and Russian experience in determining oil vapour emissions from ver-tical steel tanks. Tyumen: TyumGNU.
  12. Matsumura, I. (1974). Evaporation loss of hydrocarbon in handling petroleum. Bulletin of The Ja-pan Petroleum Institute, 2, 132-139.
  13. Abdelmajeed, M. A., Onsa, M. H., Rabah, A. A. (2009). Management of evaporation losses of gas-oline's storage tanks. Sudan Engineering Society Journal, 52, 39-43.
  14. Clavijo Mayorga, D. G., Padilla Erazo, W. L. (2014). Minimización de pérdidas en los tanques de almacenamiento de naftas en refinería Esmeraldas. Quito: Escuela Politécnica Nacional.
  15. Magaril, E. (2015). Reducing gasoline loss from evaporation by the introduction of a surface-active fuel additive. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, 146, 233-242.
  16. Lyubin, E. A. (2007). Prediction of oil losses from vertical cylindrical tanks. Journal of Mining Institute, 181, 132-134.
  17. Kampa, E., Ward, D. G., Leipprand, A. (2007). Convergence with EU air policy - a short guide for European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries, and Russia. Policy guide: the EU air policy. ECOLOGIC - Institute for International and European Environmental Policy.
  18. Lebedev, I. V., Abouzova, F. F., Shcheglov, V. E. (2006). Calculation of the maximal capacity of hydrocarbons emission for objects of transportation and storage of oil and oil products. Ecology and Industry of Russia, 5, 28-29.
  19. Korshak, A. A., Korshak, An. А. (2021). Estimation of the contribution of vapour-air mixture vol-ume increase over injection volume in oil and oil products losses from evaporation. Science and Technology of Pipeline Transport of Oil and Oil Products, 11(4), 452-459.
  20. Levitin, R. E., Zemenkov, Yu. D. (). The new approach to accurately determination of oil tanks evaporation. Oil Industry, 1, 110-114.
  21. Garusova, L. N., Kuryanova, U. Yu. (2019). U.S. environmental policy and legislation. Proceedings of IIAE FEB RAS, 24(3), 147-160.
  22. Mihajlović, M. A., Veljašević, A. S., Jovanović, J. M., Jovanović, M. B. (2013). Estimation of evapo-rative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products. Journal Hemijska Industrija, 67(1), 165–174.
  23. Lyubin, E. A. (2014). Evaluation of a technology for capturing petroleum vapors from Rvs-type storage tanks with the use of a pump-ejector plant. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 50(5), 288–293.
  24. Veronico, L. K., Yansen, H., Antonius, I. (2020). Surface cover method to reduce evaporation rate of crude oil. IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering, 823, 012012.
  25. Karbasian, H. R., Kim, D. Y., Yoon, S. Y., et al. (2017). A new method for reducing VOCs for-mation during crude oil loading process. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(4), 1701–1710.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400930

E-mail: 89028130230@mail.ru


S. H. Jabarov1, A. Kh. Nabiyeva1, A. V. Trukhanov2,3, S. V. Trukhanov2,3, H. J. Huseynov1, Y. I. Aliyev4,5

1Institute of Physics, Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan; 2Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus; 3National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia; 4Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, Baku, Azerbaijan; 5Western Caspian University, Baku, Azerbaijan

Dielectric and electrical properties of the La0.73Ba0.27MnO3 compound at high temperatures


In the presented work, comparative studies of the dielectric and electrical properties of La0.73Ba0.27MnO3 compounds were carried out at the temperature range T = 25-225 °C and frequencies range f = 20-106 Hz. Temperature and frequency dependences of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, dielectric loss angle, dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity were obtained. This compound was found to have semiconducting properties under normal conditions. It has been established that with increasing temperature and frequency, the electrical conductivity in these compounds increases. This effect is explained by the release of charge carriers at deep levels due to thermal energy. At a temperature T = 140 °C, a semiconductor-metal phase transition was detected in this compound. The values of physical parameters for each of the semiconductor and metal phases are determined. The occurrence of a phase transition is explained by the mechanism of activation of charge carriers due to thermal energy. 

Keywords: perovskit; dielectric properties; electrical properties; La1-xBaxMnO3.

In the presented work, comparative studies of the dielectric and electrical properties of La0.73Ba0.27MnO3 compounds were carried out at the temperature range T = 25-225 °C and frequencies range f = 20-106 Hz. Temperature and frequency dependences of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, dielectric loss angle, dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity were obtained. This compound was found to have semiconducting properties under normal conditions. It has been established that with increasing temperature and frequency, the electrical conductivity in these compounds increases. This effect is explained by the release of charge carriers at deep levels due to thermal energy. At a temperature T = 140 °C, a semiconductor-metal phase transition was detected in this compound. The values of physical parameters for each of the semiconductor and metal phases are determined. The occurrence of a phase transition is explained by the mechanism of activation of charge carriers due to thermal energy. 

Keywords: perovskit; dielectric properties; electrical properties; La1-xBaxMnO3.

References

  1. Dang, N. T., Kozlenko, D. P., Kichanov, S. E., et al. (2017). Revealing the formation mechanism and effect of pressure on the magnetic order of multiferroic BiMn2O5 through neutron powder diffraction. Journal of Electronic Materials, 46, 3373-3380.
  2. Jabarov, S. H., Ibrahimova, S. I., Hajiyeva, F. V., et al. (2022). Structural, vibrational, and dielectric properties of CuInZnSe3 chalcogenide compound. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 47(6), 7817-7823.
  3. Alekperov, A. S., Dashdemirov, A. O., Shumskaya, A. E., Jabarov, S. H. (2021). High-temperature exciton photoconductivity of Ge1-xNdxS crystals. Crystallography Reports, 66, 1322-1327.
  4. Аgamirzayeva, G. М., Huseynov, G. G., Aliyev, Y. I., et al. (2023). Crystal structure and magnetıc propertıes of the compound Cu3Fe0.5Se2. Advanced Physical Research, 5(1), 19-25.
  5. Jabarov, S. H., Aliyev, Y. I., Ilyasli, T. M., et al. (2021). AgCuS compound as a thermodynamic system under the influence of gamma rays. Integrated Ferroelectrics, 221, 180-185.
  6. Dang, N. T., Zakhvalinskii, V. S., Kozlenko, D. P., et al. (2018). Effect of Fe doping on structure, magnetic and electrical properties La0.7Ca0.3Mn0.5Fe0.5O3 manganite. Ceramics International, 44(13), 14974-14979.
  7. Trukhanov, S. V., Trukhanov, A. V., Dang, N. T., et al. (2018). Magnetotransport properties and phase separation in iron substituted lanthanum-calcium manganite. Materials Research Express, 5(8), 086108.
  8. Trukhanov, S. V. (2003). Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of La1-xBaxMnO3-x/2 perovskite manganites. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 13(2), 347-352.
  9. Nabiyeva, A. Kh., Jabarov, S. H., Trukhanov, S. V.,et al. (2023). XRD and SEM analyses of structural properties of LaxBa1-xMnO3 solid solutions. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 37, 2450327.
  10. Hashimov, R. F., Mikailzade, F. A., Trukhanov, S. V., et al. (2019). Structure and thermal analysis of Ba0.5La0.5MnOpolycrystalline powder. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 33, 1950244.
  11. Ertuğ, B. (2013). The overview of the electrical properties of barium titanate. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 02(08), 01-07.
  12. Hayat, Kh., Nadeem, M., Javid Iqbal, M., et al. (2014). Analysis of electro-active regions and conductivity of BaMnO3 ceramic by impedance spectroscopy. Applied Physics A, 115, 1281-1289.
  13. Rached, A., Wederni, M. A., Khirouni, K., et al. (2021). Structural, optical and electrical properties of barium titanate. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 267, 124600.
  14. Panwar, N. S., Semwal, B. S. (2011). Study of electrical conductivity of barium titanate ceramics. Ferroelectrics, 115, 1-6.
  15. Jabarov, S. H., Ibrahimova, S. I., Hajiyeva, F. V., et al. (2022). Structural, vibrational, and dielectric properties of CuInZnSe3 chalcogenide compound. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 47(6), 7817-7823.
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DOI: 10.5510/OGP20230400931

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